- My Experience With Boswellia
- The Boswellia That I Take
- The Health Benefits of Boswellia
- 1) Boswellia Protects the GI Tract
- 2) Boswellia is Beneficial in Asthma
- 3) Boswellia Improves Cognitive Functions
- 4) Boswellia Combats Headaches
- 5) Boswellia could be Beneficial in Anxiety and Depression
- 6) Boswellia Reduces Inflammation
- 7) Boswellia Relieves Rheumatoid Arthritis
- 8) Boswellia is Good for Gums
- 9) Boswellia Reduces Breast Tissue Density
- 10) Boswellia Protects the Liver
- 11) Boswellia Relieves Pain
- 12) Boswellia Combats Cancer
- 13) Boswellia Reduces Brain Swelling
- 14) Boswellia is Cardioprotective
- 15) Boswellia is Beneficial in Diabetes
- 16) Boswellia has Anti-Obesity Properties
- 17) Boswellia is Good for the Skin
- 18) Boswellia Boosts the Immune System
- 19) Boswellia Combats Pathogens
- 20) Boswellia May Boost Male Fertility
- Buying & Recommended Dosage
- Side Effects of Boswellia
- Bioavailability of Boswellia
Boswellia resins, also known as frankincense/olibanum, are obtained from Boswellia trees. Incisions are made in the trunks of the trees to produce exuded gum, which appears as milk like resin, and hardens into orange-brown gum resin (R,R).
There are many Boswellia species and varieties, including Boswellia sacra from Oman and Yemen, Boswellia carteri from East Africa and China, Boswellia frereana from Somalia and Boswellia serrata from India (R,R).
Today the most traded frankincense is produced in Oman, Yemen, and Somalia (R).
Boswellia resins have been considered throughout the ages to have a wealth of healing properties (R).
Since ancient times, frankincense has been used in Africa, China, India, and the Middle East for the prevention and treatment of various illnesses, especially chronic inflammatory diseases (R).
Boswellia serrata is one of the ancient and most valued herbs in Ayurveda (R), and in the Indian system of medicine, frankincense has been used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-proliferative, and analgesic agent for the treatment.
Boswellia has anti-inflammatory activity, due to the ability to regulating immune cytokine production and leukocyte infiltration (R).
Extracts from Boswellia have further been shown to possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-neoplastic properties (R).
Boswellia acids provide anti-neoploastic activity through their anti-proliferative and cell-death-inducing properties in multiple human cancer cell lines, including meningioma cells, leukemia cells, hepatoma cells, melanoma cells, fibrosarcoma cells, colon cancer cells, and prostate cancer cells (R).
Boswellia resins attenuate memory deficits (R).
My Experience With Boswellia
In short, I really enjoy the anti-inflammatory effect from boswellia. It’s a good supplement for Th1 dominant people such as myself.
The Boswellia That I Take
Below, I give a few different options to buy Boswellia, but some people want to to know which one I recommend.
The Health Benefits of Boswellia
1) Boswellia Protects the GI Tract
Oral therapy with Boswellia extract significantly attenuated gastrointestinal ileum injury in rats (R).
2) Boswellia is Beneficial in Asthma
Frankincense has traditionally been valued for its effect on the respiratory system, and has been used in steam inhalations, baths, and massages to treat cough, catarrh, bronchitis, and asthma (R).
Boswellic acids found in frankincense have shown to be responsible for the inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis and, therefore, can reduce and prevent the inflammation in many chronic inflammatory diseases like asthma (R).
Gum resin of Boswellia serrata improved bronchial asthma in 70% of patients, as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as difficulty in breathing, hissing lung sound and the number of attacks (R).
3) Boswellia Improves Cognitive Functions
Boswellia is traditionally believed to improve learning and memory (R).
Young rats whose mothers were treated with Boswellia in pregnancy showed increase in the power of learning, short-term and long-term memory, and an increase in the volume of hippocampal neurons, and the number of synaptic connections (R).
Boswellia serrata enhanced cognitive outcomes in patients with diffuse axonal injury (R).
In traumatic brain injury mouse model, incensole acetate (IA) isolated from Boswellia resin inhibited hippocampal neurodegeneration and exerted a beneficial effect on cognitive ability (R).
4) Boswellia Combats Headaches
5) Boswellia could be Beneficial in Anxiety and Depression
Incensole acetate (IA), exhibits an anti-depressive-like effect in mice following a single dose administration (R).
6) Boswellia Reduces Inflammation
Boswellic acids increase phagocytosis of macrophages (R).
Boswellic acids affect the cellular defense system by inhibiting the production/release of cytokines (R).
Boswellia has shown to be a specific inhibitor of leukotrienes, inhibiting inflammation and shrinking the inflamed tissue which is the primary cause of pain and discomfort in many cases (R).
Clinical studies show efficacy in treating autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and bronchial asthma. Side effects are not severe when compared to modern drugs used for the treatment of these diseases (R).
7) Boswellia Relieves Rheumatoid Arthritis
Boswellic acids exhibited 25-46% inhibition of edema in rats and mice and exhibited 45-67% anti-arthritic activity in animal models (R).
Oral administration of Boswellia serrata gum resin extract (BSE) resulted in significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators in rats with rheumatoid arthritis (R).
8) Boswellia is Good for Gums
9) Boswellia Reduces Breast Tissue Density
Boswellia reduces fibroadenoma (benign breast tumor) volume and dimension with no relevant side effects (R).
10) Boswellia Protects the Liver
Boswellia serrata extract had protective properties in animal liver (R).
Parazite Schistosome eggs induce liver granulomatous inflammation, and Boswellia extract can significantly attenuate Schistosome japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma (R).
11) Boswellia Relieves Pain
Boswellia sacra has analgesic properties (R).
Boswellia serrata significantly increased the pain threshold and pain tolerance in humans (R).
12) Boswellia Combats Cancer
Boswellic acids are potent cell-death causing agents to cancer cells (R).
Boswellia reduces cell viability and induces cell death in human breast cancer cells, bladder cancer cells, pancreatic cancer cells, hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer cells, myeloid leukemia cells, neuroblastoma cells and meningioma (R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R,R).
Boswellic acid inhibited gastric carcinoma growth in mice (R).
Administration of Boswellic asid significantly inhibited ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor growth in mice (R).
Boswellic acid was highly effective in suppressing tumor growth and metastasis in mice (R).
Boswellia serrata inhibited pancreatic cancer cell and breast tumor cell invasion and metastasis (R).
13) Boswellia Reduces Brain Swelling
An ethanolic extract of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata reduced peritumoral brain edema by 22-48% (R).
In patients with malignant glioma, administering 3600 mg/day of Boswellia extract (60% boswellic acids), 7 days prior to surgery, caused decrease in the fluid around the tumor to an average of 30% in 8 of the 12 patients and the signs of brain damage further decreased during the treatment (R).
Boswellia serrata reduced radiotherapy-related edema in 60% of patients (R).
14) Boswellia is Cardioprotective
Boswellia carteri exhibited mild cardioprotective effect and weak antioxidant activity in animals with a heart attack (R).
β-boswellic acid (β-BA) ameliorates plasma coagulation parameters and protects blood vessels from injury (R).
15) Boswellia is Beneficial in Diabetes
Oral administration of Boswellia glabra leaf and root extract decreased the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Continuous use decreased blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, and creatinine levels and enzyme activities (R).
16) Boswellia has Anti-Obesity Properties
Boswellia extract in mice reduced the accumulation of fat under the abdomen (R).
17) Boswellia is Good for the Skin
Use of a cream containing Boswellic acids on facial skin lead to significant improvement in photoaging, tactile roughness, and fine lines, increased elasticity, and decreased sebum excretion (R).
Boswellia serrata extract has a soothing effect on irritated skin, reduces redness and irritation and produces an even skin tone (R).
Boswellic acid (AKBA) is an effective topical agent to soften facial lines and relax the skin (R).
In a routine toxicity studym Boswellia resin and AKBA showed moderate to low toxicity on the skin (R).
18) Boswellia Boosts the Immune System
Boswellia serrata fraction enhances macrophage activation (R).
19) Boswellia Combats Pathogens
Boswellia Combats Viruses
Boswellia Combats Bacteria
AKBA exhibited an inhibitory effect on various oral cavity pathogens tested (R).
Boswellia Combats Protozoans
Boswellia diterpenes were found active against sleeping sickness inducing Trypanosoma brucei and malaria inducing Plasmodium falciparum (R).
Boswellia Combats Fungi
20) Boswellia May Boost Male Fertility
Oral administration of frankincense increased both sperm motility and sperm density in adult male rats, boosting fertility, and increasing the number of implantations and viable fetuses in females (R).
However, in a different study, it was shown that Boswellia smoke decreases FSH, LH and testosterone, decreases sperm count, motility and speed, and increases sperm anomalies (R, R). However, it can be argued that these effects come from the chemicals found in the smoke, and not from the plant itself.
Buying & Recommended Dosage
Boswellia is generally taken as a capsule, tablet or its bark decoction orally (R).
Chemical constituents of Boswellia essential oils differ significantly due to the differences in climate, time of harvest, storage conditions, geographical source of resins, and methods of preparation (R).
The main component of frankincense is oil (60%). It contains mono- (13%) and diterpenes (40%) as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%) and methylanisole (7.6%) (R).
The suggested dosage for inflammatory or asthmatic conditions is 300-400 mg of the standardized extract (containing 60% boswellic acids) three times daily (R).
Side Effects of Boswellia
Frankincense has not shown any severe side effect and is considered to be safe (R).
The anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia, unlike many anti-inflammatory chemical drugs, do not cause any adverse effects on blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, or other autonomic responses, and the resin has remarkably low toxicity (R).
The gum resin of Boswellia is included in the list of safe substances and its use is permitted by US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as a food additive (R).
A repeated dose oral (90 days) toxicity study of Boswellia serrata was carried out in rats, and Boswellia was relatively safe up to the dose of 500 – 1000 mg/kg. No adverse impact on health was observed (R,R).
Bioavailability of Boswellia
Plasma levels of boswellic acids became only detectable when administered with a high-fat meal (R).
The four major boswellic acids found in frankincense are: β-boswellic acid (BA), acetyl-β-boswellic acid (ABA), 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA), and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), which are responsible for the inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes (R).
11-keto-β-boswellic acid is the most potent anti-inflammatory component of the resin, and selectively blocks leukotriene biosynthesis through inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity (R).
Besides boswellic acids, additional triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense have anti-inflammatory potential (R).