- The Good: Health Benefits of Tetrahydrocannabinol
- 1) THC Benefits Cardiovascular Diseases
- 2) THC May Inhibit Tumor Growth and Help Prevent Cancer
- 3) THC Stimulates Appetite and Can Help With Nausea
- 4) THC Helps with Pain Management
- 5) THC Can Help Insomnia and Increase Deep Sleep
- 6) THC Helps Prevent Seizures
- 7) THC Increases Insulin Sensitivity
- 8) THC Can Improve Your Brain in Some Ways
- The Bad: Adverse Effects of THC
- Technical: Actions of THC Receptors and Neurotransmitters
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also known as delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is the primary component of cannabis responsible for its psychoactive properties. It is considered a secondary metabolite of the plant marijuana that serves as a defense mechanism to prevent consumption of the plant (R).
Medical use of cannabis dates back as far as 16th century B.C. by the Egyptians, and subsequently by the Greeks and Romans. A cannabis extract containing THC metabolites was found inside a tomb in Israel on remains of a young woman who appeared to have died giving birth (R). The archeologists who discovered the tomb speculated that the cannabis was used to facilitate the birth process.
Current Uses of THC in Medicine
Although CBD may be a more popular constituent of cannabis for therapeutic purposes, synthetic forms of THC such as Dronabinol have been approved for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite in chemotherapy and AIDS patients (R).
Route of Administration and Pharmacokinetics of THC
There are many different routes of administration, with varying absorption and elimination rates, depending on the purpose of use (R).
- Smoking or absorption of THC via the lungs result in rapid and efficient absorption with 2 – 56% bioavailability of THC and its metabolites. Peak levels in the blood is detected after 12 minutes.
- Oral or ingestion of THC result in a lower, more gradual and blunted peak in serum concentration of THC. Serum levels peak at around 1.5 – 2 hours. Chocolate cookies with cannabis has ~6% bioavailability 1 – 5 hour post-ingestion. The absorbed cannabis is also subject to first-pass liver metabolism.
- Sublingual, rectal, and skin uses of THC are somewhat less effective than smoking and injecting, but more effective than ingesting THC because these methods all bypass the digestive system and first-pass liver metabolism. In addition, the THC metabolites stay longer in the system when consumed via these less effective routes. Because smoking may cause other side-effects from smoke exposure, these other routes of administration may be favorable where a prolonged result is desired.
THC is a highly fat soluble substance, which means that it has a preference for lipid-rich tissues such as lungs, hearts, brain, and liver (R).
Brain levels of THC are almost always higher than blood levels, and there may be THC in the brain even when it is absent in the blood. Chronic use of THC can result in THC accumulation in fat tissues (R).
THC readily crosses the placenta in dogs and sheep (R).
The Good: Health Benefits of Tetrahydrocannabinol
1) THC Benefits Cardiovascular Diseases
Marijuana use is typically associated with other unhealthy behaviors such as a high calorie diet, smoking, and other drug use (R). However, mechanistic studies found that THC itself (without those unhealthy lifestyle factors) have shown that THC may help reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
THC Hinders Progression of Atherosclerosis Plague
THC’s anti-inflammatory effects reduce platelet accumulation and promote immune function in the heart, which inhibits atherosclerosis (R).
2) THC May Inhibit Tumor Growth and Help Prevent Cancer
Glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly and hard to treat form of brain cancer with limited treatment options and a low life expectancy. Direct injection of THC into the glioblastoma tumors inhibits tumor cell proliferation and increased the median life expectancy by about 24 weeks (R). A cellular study found that CBD enhances this effect of THC (R).
Treatment of breast cancer cells in mice showed that low doses THC (.5 mg/day) served significant anti-tumor properties. THC reduced growth, number, and overall blood vessel number in the breast tumors (R).
However, THC use may not be beneficial in breast cancer types that do not harbor lectin-sensitive-gene-cannabanoid-receptor-1-genes-cnr1-rs1049353/”>cannabinoid receptors. In addition, THC may suppress the anti-tumor immune responses (R).
In a survey of people who are habitual THC users but not cigarette smokers, the use of THC did not increase the incidence of lung cancer, although negative outcomes from smoking THC were not ruled out (R).
3) THC Stimulates Appetite and Can Help With Nausea
In patients suffering from HIV, cancer or other diseases that lead to decreased appetite and muscle wasting, THC and other cannabis substances has been studied as an effective treatment to stimulate appetite and mitigate cachexia (R).
4) THC Helps with Pain Management
Oral ingestion of THC in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) reduced symptoms. The maximum dosage of 25 mg of THC over the course of 15 weeks reduced pain and muscle stiffness. Also, perceived notions of healing in patients with MS increased after taking THC, improving the quality of life (R, R2, R3).
5) THC Can Help Insomnia and Increase Deep Sleep
6) THC Helps Prevent Seizures
In a rat model, THC completely abolishes epileptic seizures (R).
7) THC Increases Insulin Sensitivity
An epidemiological study found that current marijuana use is associated with 16% lower fasting insulin levels in comparison to past marijuana users and 26% in comparison to people who never used marijuana (R). This trend was also similar for other insulin resistance metrics, suggesting that THC increases insulin sensitivity.
8) THC Can Improve Your Brain in Some Ways
The Bad: Adverse Effects of THC
After ingesting a high dose of THC, increased levels of adrenaline were detected after 2 hours but then returned to normal after 4 hours (R).
THC may reversibly block synaptic neuroplasticity in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus (R).
Highly potent cannabis may impair creativity and divergent thinking (R).
Technical: Actions of THC Receptors and Neurotransmitters
THC is a CB1 and CB2 partial agonists. THC binds to CB1 receptors on GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, thus disrupting signaling systems to dopaminergic neurons (R, R2). In addition, THC allosterically modulates opioid receptors (R).
THC causes euphoric state through increasing of dopamine signaling, although chronic use of THC can blunt the dopamine receptors (coded by DRD1 and DRD2 genes) (R). The effects of THC on the dopamine system appears to be dependent on dose and duration of use (R).