Some people gain weight from chronic inflammation, while others lose weight.

The kind of inflammation you’re experiencing will determine if you gain or lose weight.

Most people will lose weight from chronic inflammation.

You might want to read the precursors to this post:

The following list is different from the other posts. Believe it or not, there’s a lot more….

There’re many mechanisms in the body that alter appetite and energy storage and expenditure.

People who are over or underweight usually have a metabolic problem, assuming they’re trying to normalize their weight.  And this metabolic problem is often from inflammation of various kinds.

Why Inflammation Leads to Weight Loss? – The Big Picture

Cytokines suppress food intake in the brain (and also via the activation of projections of the vagus nerve to the brain (NTS)) (R).

The most significant mechanism by which inflammation reduces weight is by activating POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus (R).

POMC neurons in the ARC are activated by IL-1b and CNTF and this decreases food intake. POMC-containing neurons project to several different regions of the hypothalamus that have the melanocortin MC4 receptor and are involved in appetite regulation (PVN, LH, and VMH).  These second-order neurons synthesize CRH that also inhibits food intake (R).

This inhibition of food intake can be significantly reduced by blocking melanocortin receptors (MC4R) (R).

You see, MSH and the MC4 receptors cause both an anti-inflammatory effect and also a reduction in appetite and weight loss (R).

The same thing goes with the nervous system. Inflammation activates the nervous system to reduce inflammation (negative feedback).  But this will release CRH and cause weight loss.

So when you have a cytokine response, the body tries to reduce inflammation, and the same mechanisms by which it reduces inflammation also causes weight loss.

As long as you are having chronic inflammation (most common types), it will trigger the activation of these MC4 receptors and CRH and you will lose weight.

It’s critical to realize that psychological stress has the same effect as inflammation, which is why people often lose weight after chronic stress. When you get stressed, IL-1b is released and the same effects occur-activation of POMC neurons.

In CIRS, there is an additional mechanism by which the MC4 receptors are not being activated (because of low MSH and other mechanisms), so this is a unique chronic inflammatory issue that doesn’t necessarily result in weight loss – although it often does.

CIRS is characterized also by TGF-beta and the complement immune activation (C3a, C4a), which causes weight gain, especially when MSH is low.

It is clear that no single cytokine is responsible for the modulation of food intake. Instead, each cytokine along with other factors involved in metabolic function, such as insulin, CCK, and ghrelin, plays a role in a concerted response that ultimately leads to the inhibition of food intake through their actions on neurons in the hypothalamus.

Here’s a good summary of inflammation and weight.

1) Agouti-Related Protein (AgRP)

AgRP is a protein that potently promotes weight gain.

Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. (R)

AgRP increases appetite and decreases metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators (R).

So you eat more and expend less energy from increased levels of AgRP.  Therefore you become fat from increased AgRP and thin from decreased levels.

AgRP is decreased after acute stress (R).  This is a large reason why people lose weight after a very stressful period.

Interestingly, some people will gain weight following a period of stress, while others will lose weight.

There are many factors taking place, but some of the main ones in involved are cortisol, NPY, and AgRP.

People who gain weight may be more likely to have higher NPY and cortisol, which increase in response to stress and cause appetite stimulation and produce more fat cells.

On the other hand, people who lose weight probably don’t have as much NPY and cortisol and may also experience a larger drop in AgRP.  A drop in AgRP from acute stress will make you thin.

People suffering from chronic inflammation will have lower AgRP.

For various reasons (such as lectins), my clients often have elevated IL-1b in their hypothalamus.

Higher cortisol is a signal that IL-1b is elevated in the hypothalamus.

IL-1beta inhibits the release of AgRP from hypothalamic tissue (R).

The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin (R).  Ghrelin significantly increased AgRP in the presence, but not absence, of Glucocorticoids (R).

Levels of AgRP are increased during periods of fasting (R).

It has been found that AgRP stimulates the HPA axis to release ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin. It also enhances the ACTH response to IL-1-beta (R).

AgRP has been demonstrated to block (inverse agonist) MC3-R and MC4-R (R).

AgRP induces obesity by chronically blocking of the MC4-R (R).

When activated, MC3- and MC4 receptor activation help people lose weight. These receptors are activated by the peptide hormone α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone).

Whereas α-MSH acts broadly on most members of the MCR family (with the exception of MC2-R), AGRP is highly specific for only MC3-R and MC4-R.

In the adrenals, AgRP blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of cortisol in mice (R).

Loss or gain of AgRP function may result in inadequate adaptive behavioral responses to environmental events, such as stress, and have potential to contribute to the development of eating disorders (R).

Some studies suggest that inadequate signaling of AgRP during stress may result in binge eating (R).

Leptin suppresses food intake and increases energy expenditure at least partially by suppressing AgRP (R).

Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and energy balance in maintaining neuronal AgRP levels (R).

Cortisol (Glucocorticoids) increases AgRP (and NPY) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus through increasing AMPK (R).

Autophagy takes place while sleeping, so it’s important to get good sleep. An Infrared Sauna can also increase autophagy.

If you’re thin, it means you have low AgRP and you need to reduce your stress levels.

If you’re overweight, it means you have high AgRP and you need more sun.

2) POMC Neurons in the Hypothalamus


POMC promotes weight loss.

Activation of Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) suppress appetite while inhibiting them causes obesity (R).

Leptin suppresses food intake and increases energy expenditure at least partially by activating POMC neurons (R).

Orexin suppresses the firing of these neurons, which causes hunger (R).

Cytokines and HPA activation (CRH) increase POMC (R) and therefore will cause weight loss in this manner.

People who have chronic inflammation and/or chronic stress will often weigh less because POMC will be elevated and activate POMC neurons.

However, people with CIRS may be an exception and have lower POMC (given that they have lower MSH).

3) IL-1b

IL-1b causes weight loss.

IL-1b is a significant cytokine in stress-induced weight loss.

IL-1 is a potent inducer of anorexia. It appears to suppress food intake by reducing meal size and duration, without affecting meal frequency (R).

In addition to suppressing eating, IL-1 inhibits the maturation of fat cells as well as the synthesis of fatty acid transport proteins in fat tissue (in vitro). It also decreases stomach emptying and gut flow, and increases leptin, glucagon, and insulin (R).

The higher the IL-1 concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid, the lower the food intake in rats (R).

There was a decrease in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamine (DA) and an increase in serotonin concentration in the rats that had elevated IL-1b (R).

Norepinephrine acts via beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) to increase brain IL-1 production in the hypothalamus during an acute or chronic stressor (R).

IL-1b might also be another reason why people with chronic stress have lower testosterone – because it blunts testosterone production from hCG (R).  CRH and norepinephrine also blunt the testosterone response (R).

Excess exercise in rodents causes hypothalamic inflammation, which results in reductions in the body weight and food intake.  This is mediated by cytokines such as IL-1b, TNF, and IL-6 (R).

Omega-3 fatty acid suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines production and improved food intake by normalizing hypothalamic food intake-related peptides (R).

TNF, when administered with IL-1 , acts synergistically to suppress food intake (R).

I have a full list of IL-1b inhibitors in my post on it.

SelfDecode has SNPs for IL-1b.

4) TGF-b/SMAD3

TGF-beta causes weight gain.

TGF-beta is correlated with obesity in rodents and humans (R).

Further, systemic blockade of TGF-β signaling protects mice from obesity, diabetes, and liver damage (R).

Smad3 (which is activated by TGF) acts as a repressor of PGC-1a expression.

People with CIRS have elevated TGF-beta, which is probably one reason why they have problems with weight loss.  TGF-beta also degrades muscle.

However, TGF-beta is significantly elevated during starvation in Anorexia, but this could be confounded by the elevation of other cytokines (R).

5) C3a

C3a causes weight gain.

Complement 3 (C3) generates C3a. C3a converts to ASP or acylation-stimulating-protein due to its stimulating action on triglyceride synthesis in human fat and skin cells (fibroblasts) (R).

ASP inhibits the action of hormone-sensitive lipase, which is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity (R).

C3a and the complement immune system is often elevated in CIRS.

SelfDecode has SNPs for C3a.

6) MC4R and MC3R


MC4R and MC3R cause weight loss.

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is critically involved in weight regulation (R).

When activated these receptors cause weight loss (R).

MC4R works in part through BDNF in the hypothalamus (VMH) (R).

BDNF decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure (R).

Inflammatory cytokines from circulation or produced locally by microglia act directly on hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons.

The activity of POMC neurons is stimulated while the activity of AgRP/NPY neurons is inhibited. This leads to increased activation of MC4R, which results in decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure (R).

SelfDecode has SNPs for MC4R.

7) STAT3

STAT3 causes weight loss.

Defective STAT3 results in obesity and insulin resistance in animal models.

Mice with a disruption of the STAT3 gene eat too much, are obese, diabetic, infertile and have excess leptin, suggesting a leptin-resistant condition (R).

STAT3 appears essential for normal body weight and glucose homeostasis in response to the actions of both leptin and insulin (R).

Read my post on STAT3.

SelfDecode has SNPs for STAT3.

8) IL-10

IL-10 causes weight loss.

IL-10 decreases obesity by reducing overeating and decreasing insulin and leptin resistance in the hypothalamus, the gland that control appetite (by inhibiting cytokines, Nf-kB). (R)

Chronic inflammatory states can have higher or lower IL-10.

  • Read my post on IL-10.

SelfDecode has SNPs for IL-10.

9) TNF-alpha

TNF-alpha causes weight loss.

TNF suppresses food intake, but it’s less potent than IL-1 (R).

TNF, when administered with IL-1, acts synergistically to suppress food intake (R).

SelfDecode has SNPs for TNF.

10) IL-6

IL-6 causes weight loss.

IL-6 suppresses food intake when injected into the brain, but not in general circulation (R).

When chronically administered into the brain, IL-6 causes anorexia increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat without inducing an acute-phase reaction (CRP, ESR, etc..) (R).

Other members of the IL-6 family also show potent inhibitory effects on food intake. These include IL-11 and leukemia inhibitory factor (R).

Science has discovered that exercise can help you lose weight more than by just burning calories; it changes your hypothalamus (R).

IL-6 is part of this mechanism by which exercise can help us lose weight (R).

SelfDecode has SNPs for IL-6.

11) Nf-kB


Nf-kB seems to cause weight gain.

Eating too much (no matter if it’s too much fat or carbs) creates insulin and leptin resistance (via activating hypothalamic NF-kB).

The fancy term is “endoplasmic reticulum stress”, which basically means we’re overloading our cells with calories.

Most studies use fat to do this, but any macronutrient can theoretically do this (R).

NF-κB activity was higher in animals fed a high-fat diet.  Increased abdominal fat was associated with higher Nf-kB in these tissues (R).

See my post on Nf-kB.

12) Interferons (IFNy, IFNa)

Interferons (IFNy and IFNa) cause weight loss.

Infusion of interferon in the rat brain decreased short-term (2-h) food intake in rats. There was a reduction of meal size and meal duration, whereas meal frequency slightly increased. Nighttime and total daily food intakes were not significantly affected (R).

See my post on decreasing Th1 dominance, which should decrease interferon.

13) IL-8

IL-8 causes weight loss.

IL-8 causes a short-term suppression of food intake.  This effect of IL-8 may contribute to the reduced food intake when people get sick (R).

SelfDecode has SNPs for IL-8.

14) MyD88

MyD88 causes weight gain in some circumstances.

When scientists inactivated part of the intestinal immune system in mice (a protein called MyD88), they were much more resistant to diabetes and obesity (diabesity) (R).

This MyD88 protein also causes gut permeability (R).

A lectin avoidance diet should reduce activation of MyD88.

15) IL-18

IL-18 causes weight loss.

Mice deficient in interleukin 18, a cytokine that signals via STAT3, eat too much and are obese and insulin resistant (R).

Insulin resistance seemed to be secondary to increased food intake and obesity (specifically accumulation of body fat) because the effect only emerged after 6 months (R).

Curcumin suppresses IL-18 (R).

16) Quinolinic acid

Quinolinic acid causes weight loss.

Injection of quinolinic acid in the brain results in a drastic reduction in body weight decreased physical activity, increased oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function in rats (R).

People chronic inflammation or chronic stress have higher levels of quinolinic acid, which might be part of the reason why people in these states often weigh less.

Natural phenols such as curcumin suppress IL-18 (R). and EGCG reduces the neurotoxicity of quinolinic acid, via anti-oxidant and possibly calcium influx mechanisms. COX-2 inhibitors have also demonstrated protective properties against the neurotoxic effects of quinolinic acid (R).


17) Histamine

Histamine causes weight loss.

Histamine and compounds that increase histamine concentrations are powerful suppressants of food intake (R).

Genetically obese rats have very low concentrations of hypothalamic histamine (R).

An action on the H1 receptor in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seems to account for these effects (R).

Histamine is also a powerful agent that induces drinking, whether administered systemically or directly into the hypothalamus (R).

18) PAI-1

PAI-1 causes weight gain.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is present in increased levels in various disease states such cancer, heart disease and obesity. (R)

PAI-1 results in the overgrowth of tissue (fibrosis) (R).

Angiotensin II increases PAI-1, so it accelerates the development of atherosclerosis (R).

PAI-1 is believed to have a direct causal role in obesity and insulin resistance (R).

TGF-beta increases PAI-1, which is reversed by curcumin (R).

Presumably, CIRS will have elevated PAI-1 because of higher TGF-beta.

Curcumin also reduces PAI-1 from Angiotensin activation (R).

Buy Curcumin (IHERB).

19) Orexin

Orexin has mixed effects on weight, but overall seems to cause weight gain.

Orexin increase appetite and energy expenditure.

Inflammation shuts orexin down, which can cause us to have a lower appetite, eat less and weigh less.

20) Glutamate

Glutamate causes weight gain.

Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter and it stimulates appetite (R).

People with chronic inflammation will have higher glutamate in various brain regions.

21) Adrenaline (Epinephrine)

Adrenaline causes weight loss.

Adrenaline is often increased in response to cytokines and inflammation.

Adrenaline is a stress hormone that underlies the fight-or-flight response.

In animal studies, adrenaline alone can decrease eating by 80% . It’s suspected that this works by increasing the metabolism of glucose, mostly by the liver. (R)

Prolonged exercise is a good and healthy way to increase adrenaline.

Ephedrine is a protein extracted from a Chinese plant that acts similar to adrenaline and acts on the same receptors. However, this became illegal as people overdid it and it caused adverse health effects.

The adrenal glands dump adrenaline into the blood stream, which leads to an increase in body temperature thereby burning more calories.

Adrenaline enhances release of glucose from glycogen and enhances the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue. (R)

Beta 2 and 3 adrenergic receptors increase fat busting (lipolysis). (R)  These receptors are activated in response to adrenaline.

22) Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

Noradrenaline/norepinephrine causes weight loss.

Norepinephrine is a stress hormone that underlies the fight-or-flight response. Norepinephrine increases blood pressure.

Norepinephrine suppresses food intake (R) and it’s elevated in anorexia (R).

Norepinephrine influences appetite at the hypothalamic level.

Starvation decreases norepinephrine synthesis resulting in lowered appetite and lower metabolism (R).

An SNRI (a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) called sibutramine results in weight loss, which is can be caused by increase serotonin and norepinephrine. (R)

Norepinephrine helps burn brown fat, which contributes substantially to energy expenditure by converting fatty acids and glucose into heat (R).

Exercise increases norepinephrine.

23) SOCS3

SOCS3 causes weight gain.

SOCS3 causes leptin resistance, obesity, and glucose intolerance (RR2).

SOCS3 is often elevated in CIRS.

Read my post on SOCS3.

SelfDecode has SNPs for SOCS3.

24) MMPs

MMPs cause weight gain.

There is growing evidence that MMPs play an important role in causing obesity.

Human fat tissue releases MMP-2. Overweight/obese women had significantly higher MMP-2 than controls [R].

An MMP-2 gene was associated with the percentage of body fat in childhood obesity in New Zealand [R].

MMP-9 levels are found increased in obese subjects [RR2] and is correlated with BMI [R].

MMP-9 SNPs are strongly associated with obesity [R, R2].

In one study, obese children and adolescents had higher MMP-8 and lower TIMP-1 (MMP inhibitor) [R].

25) IL-4

IL-4 causes weight loss overall, although the effects are mixed.

IL-4 is a Th2 cytokine that promotes fat busting by enhancing the activity and movement of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature fat cells.  IL-4 also inhibits fat cell creation and fat accumulation as well (R).

However, IL-4 is also associated with increased NPY, which can cause weight gain. This could explain why weight gain is more common in Th2 dominance (R, R2).

26) Serotonin

Serotonin has tissue-specific effects – it causes weight gain in the body but weight loss in the hypothalamus.

When serotonin is infused in the hypothalamus (ventromedial or lateral) of animals, they stopped eating and starvation resulted.

Low hypothalamic serotonin or dysfunctional receptors lead to increased cravings for carbs and sweets (R).

On the other hand, serotonin in the body (not brain) can increase weight by lessening the browning of fat and, therefore, the burning of calories (R).

So it seems like systemic serotonin levels may cause obesity, but hypothalamic serotonin decreases food intake.

Carbohydrates and tryptophan help to increase serotonin (R).

The appetite inhibiting effects of serotonin in the brain are mediated by various serotonin receptors, some of which are increased in inflammation.

Activation of 5-HT1A (R), 5-HT2C and 5-HT1B receptors (R) in the hypothalamus seem to be the most important receptors for reducing appetite.

Activation of the 5HT2C receptor shuts down appetite (R), causes depression (R), anxiety (R) and low insulin. (R)

5-HT2C receptor activators work, in part, via activating melanocortin-4 receptors (R).

The effects of 5-HT2C receptors and 5-HT1B receptors on appetite are mediated primarily through activation of hypothalamic (ARC) POMC neurons (R).

The 5-HT2C receptors also increase the expression of hypothalamic NUCB2, which induces anorexia in mice (R).

When given an antagonist (blocker) of the 5HT2C receptor, people with CFS reported less perceived fatigue (R), which might implicate this receptor in fatigue as well.

The 5-HT2C receptor is increased by inflammation (R).

Curcumin‘s anti-depressant effect may work in part via the 5HT2C receptor. (R)

Estradiol decreases these receptors in the ventral hippocampus (while increasing the 5HT2A receptors). (R)

Buy Curcumin (IHERB).

SelfDecode has SNPs for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptors.

27) CNTF

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces weight loss. CNTF induces fever as well as inducing other aspects of the acute-phase response. CNTF is predominantly produced by astrocytes in the brain and chronic administration reduces food intake and causes weight loss (R).While most cytokines inhibit food intake and result in weight loss, only CNTF appears to have a long-term effect; in obese humans and rodents, weight loss is maintained even after treatment is stopped (R).There is evidence that this long-term effect is due to CNTF’s ability to induce neurogenesis within areas of the hypothalamus involved in energy balance (R).It is possible that CNTF alters the “set-point” of energy balance through long-term changes in synaptic function (R).In rodents, CNTF inhibits food intake and increases energy expenditure, in part through suppression of NPY (R).CNTF also induces cell creation in mouse hypothalamic areas that are capable of responding to leptin (R).

28) GM-CSF

GM-CSF causes weight loss.When rats and mice were injected in the brain with the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF, they significantly decreased food intake and body weight (R).Mice without GM-CSF weighed more and had significantly higher total body fat. Energy expenditure was also decreased (R).(Effects are mediated through PVN and ARC) (R).

29) HMGB1

HMGB1 causes weight loss.

HMGB1 inhibits food intake.

HMGB1 is a cytokine that is secreted by immune cells (like macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells).

HMGB1 contribute to damage and tissue injury in autoimmune conditions such as arthritis, colitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The mechanism of inflammation and damage is binding to TLR4, which mediates HMGB1-dependent activation of macrophage cytokine release.

HMGB1 is best inhibited by Resveratrol/SIRT1 (R).

(Note:  In fat cells, HMGB1 might contribute to obesity and indeed it was 2X higher in the fat cells of obese people (R).)

30) MIC1/GDF15

GDF15 causes weight loss.

GDF15 is part of the TGF-beta family of cytokines.

Mice with tumors that produce too much MIC-1/GDF15 eat less. Further, weight loss can be reversed by neutralization of these cytokines (R).

GDF15 probably contribute to anorexia/cachexia in humans because there is a direct correlation between the degree of blood MIC-1/GDF15 and the amount of cancer-related weight loss (R).

31) LIF

LIF causes weight loss.

Leukemia inhibitory factor  (LIF), is an interleukin 6 class cytokine.  Like IL-6, it inhibits appetite and causes weight loss (R).

LIF derives its name from its ability to reduce myeloid leukemic cells.

LIF helps with the creation and growth of embryos and its receptors are lower in infertility.  LIF might help to improve IVF or the embryo implantation rate in women with unexplained infertility (R).

32) IL-11

IL-11 causes weight loss.

Interleukin-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that is a member of the IL-6 family. It stimulates the cells that increase platelets (megakaryocytes).

It is also known under the names adipogenesis inhibitory factor (AGIF), given its role in suppressing the production of fat cells.

IL-11 has been demonstrated to improve platelet recovery after chemotherapy, induce acute-phase proteins such as CRP and contribute to bone turnover (R, R2).

It has functions in many other tissues, including the brain, gut, and testis (R).

IL11 is important in fertility (R).

33) TLR4

TLR4 causes weight gain.

Substantial evidence exists supporting the important role of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in the cause  of obesity.

Chronic low-grade inflammation found (in endotoxemia) has been demonstrated to be due to activation of TLR-4 by LPS.

TLR-4 activation increases inflammation in fat cells and macrophages, resulting in the development of insulin resistance and increased fat [R].

Mice, lacking TLR-4, have been found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance [R].

Both TLR-2 and TLR-4 are increased in fat tissue in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes [R].

A high-fat diet– or leptin deficiency-induced obesity results in higher TLR1-9 and TLR11-13 in mouse fat tissue.

TLR-4-deficient mice were protected against obesity induced by diets high in saturated fat.

Calcitriol suppresses TLR-2, 4 and 9 in human monocytes [R].

34) VEGF

VEGF causes weight gain.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is abundantly secreted from fat cells and plays a key role in the process of fat tissue formation through increasing angiogenesis.

A positive correlation between the concentrations of circulating VEGF levels and BMI was demonstrated in healthy male subjects under highly controlled conditions [R].

Angiogenesis has been associated with fat tissue (visceral and subcutaneous) in severe human obesity [R].

Mice treated with an angiogenesis inhibitor had smaller fat cells [R].

Different angiogenesis inhibitors have been shown to significantly decrease body and fat tissue weights [R].

VEGF-B specifically controlled the uptake of fatty acids [R].

Blood VEGF-A levels were significantly higher in obese patients than in lean controls, decreasing after weight loss with bariatric surgery [R].

VEGF genes increase susceptibility to obesity in children and adolescents [R].

Calcitriol has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis [R], decreases the negative effects of VEGF and decreases the production of VEGF [R].


NADPH causes weight gain.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).

The increase of p22phox and p47phox in fat tissue has been observed in obese subjects [R].

These are enzymes that use NADPH to create free radicals.

Overweight and obese adults have increased levels (vascular) of NOX-p47phox  [R].

The reduced NOX4 is a hallmark of fat cell production [R].

NOX4-deficient mice show fat tissue accumulation and are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and early onset insulin resistance [R].

The knockdown of NOX4 inhibits reactive oxygen species production and fat cell production [R].

Vitamin D may have a role in obesity via the suppression of NADPH expression.

36) Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins promote weight gain.

Prostaglandins (PGs) play a role in inflammatory processes.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) participates in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins.

PGE2 and PGD2 have shown to promote fat in mice through increase the creation of fat and preventing the breakdown of fat [RR2].

PGF2α is a potent inhibitor of fat creation in vitro [RR2].

PGE2 enhanced fat accumulation in the liver and caused fatty liver [R].

In one study, a COX-2 genetic deficiency produced in a significant reduction in total body weight and percentage of body fat [R].

37) Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS)

NOS causes weight gain.

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO).  It’s increased in inflammatory states, especially iNOS.

Platelet NO production has been significantly correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and triglyceride concentrations, thus suggesting an association between increased platelet NO production, obesity, and high triglycerides, independent of the degree of insulin-resistance [R].

Chronic NOS blockade in mice ameliorated diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance, accompanied by reduced fat tissue inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity in muscle, suggesting that NO plays a role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance [R].

Mice deprived of the eNOS and/or nNOS gene exhibit metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, hypertension, and high cholesterol [R].

Mice without inducible NOS (iNOS) have more fat, even though they’re protected from obesity-related insulin resistance [R].


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  • Larry Rotenberg

    Chronic inflammation is a key component of obesity–induced insulin resistance and plays a central role in metabolic disease. In this study, we found that the major insulin target tissues, liver, muscle and adipose tissue exhibit increased levels of the chemotactic eicosanoid LTB4 in obese high fat diet (HFD) mice compared to lean chow fed mice. Inhibition of the LTB4 receptor, Ltb4r1, through either genetic or pharmacologic loss of function results in an anti–inflammatory phenotype with protection from systemic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in the setting of both HFD–induced and genetic obesity. Importantly, in vitro treatment with LTB4 directly enhanced macrophage chemotaxis, stimulated inflammatory pathways in macrophages, promoted de novo hepatic lipogenesis, decreased insulin stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myocytes, increased gluconeogenesis, and impaired insulin–mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output (HGO) in primary mouse hepatocytes. This was accompanied by decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation and increased Irs1 and Irs2 serine phosphorylation and all of these events were Gαi and Jnk dependent. Taken together, these observations elucidate a novel role of LTB4/Ltb4r1 in the etiology of insulin resistance in hepatocytes and myocytes, and shows that in vivo inhibition of Ltb4r1 leads to robust insulin sensitizing effects.

  • Jacob

    My BMI is like 18 and im pretty anxious/unmotivated/low libido etc. Also have low cholesterol (around 110 total) and many downstream imbalances. Low test/estradiol/cortisol/

    Do you have any articles or will you make any on low cholesterol fixes?

  • Melissa

    How do I stop the weight gain of my inflamation w Hishimotos I am vegan and only consume fruit and vegs no night shades nuts seeds no gluten and still cannot get the weight to move so I am taking nature thryoid a T3 T4 bioidentical hormones cream and supplements
    I am soooo frustrated and depressed no energy trying to keep my job
    can you suggest what to do
    Thank you in advance 🙂

    1. Joseph M. Cohen

      I’d need to see your full case.

      1. BTA

        working with Dr Shoemaker for over 2.5 years – zero progress in getting rid of CIRS/MOLD. Mold infection confirmed with Neuroquant MRI. Home is clean as it’s been tested. Very careful where I go and it’s only a couple of places as to avoid moldy buildings. No idea what’s going? 🙁 ugh……
        MSH is 0 and ADH is 0. MMP-9 is 1100. TGF-B1 3500.

    2. GM

      When i take most of my calories from fruits and vegetables (and starches), my weight shoots up in an uncontrolled fashion. The only thing that avoids that happening is meat-heavy low carb paleo. Sad but true… (as i love the other kinds of food as well).

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