Find out which probiotics can help you combat H. pylori and Celiac disease, and learn more about how probiotics can improve liver function and aleviate allergies. Some probiotics also maintain the skin hydrated, elastic and healthy.
Probiotic Four Part Series
- Probiotic benefits 1-21 (Part 1)
- Probiotic benefits 22-26 (Part 2)
- Probiotic benefits 27-36 (Part 3)
- Probiotic benefits 37-61 (Part 4)
Health Benefits of Probiotics
26) Probiotics can Alleviate Mucositis
Oral mucositis is one of the most common, debilitating complications of cancer treatments, particularly chemotherapy and radiation. L. brevis reduced the incidence and severity of anticancer therapy-induced oral mucositis and improved the tolerance to chemo-radiotherapy, and anticancer treatment completion (R).
L. acidophilus improved inflammatory and functional aspects of intestinal mucositis caused by chemotherapy in mice (R).
S. boulardii reduced the inflammation and dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract in mice with intestinal mucositis (R).
In one study, S. thermophilus partially alleviated mucositis induced by administration of the antimetabolite chemotherapy drug methotrexate in rats (R), while in another study no protective effects were observed (R).
S. thermophilus partially prevented the loss of body weight induced by doxorubicin and slightly ameliorated doxorubicin-induced mucositis in rats (R).
S. thermophilus significantly reduced intestinal mucositis severity in rats treated with 5-Fluorouracil (R).
27) Probiotics Help in Helicobacter pylori Treatment
Frequently used probiotic strains for H. pylori infection are L. johnsonii, S. boulardii, L. acidophilus and B. animalis ssp. lactis (R).
Probiotics can inhibit H. pylori infection by both non-immunological and immunological mechanisms (R).
L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and S. thermophilus improve H. pylori eradication rates in infected patients (R).
L. acidophilus decreases the viability of H. pylori and increases the eradication rate in infected patients (R).
Multi-strain probiotics, including L. acidophilus/B. animalis, significantly improve H. pylori eradication rates, prevent adverse reactions and reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea (R).
L. gasseri suppressed H. pylori and reduced gastric mucosal inflammation in infected patients (R). A 4-week treatment with L. gasseri -containing yogurt improved the efficacy of triple therapy in patients with H. pylori infection (R). L. gasseri yogurt also suppressed dyspeptic symptoms in H. pylori -infected patients (R).
Fermented milk containing L. johnsonii co-administered with antibiotics was shown to have a favorable effect on H. pylori gastritis (R).
A 2-week treatment with L. reuteri significantly reduced H. pylori overgrowth in otherwise healthy adults (R).
B. animalis spp. lactis and inulin significantly reduced treatment side effects and indirectly increased eradication rates by increasing patient compliance in patients with symptomatic H. pylori infection (R).
B. bifidum improved rates of upper gastrointestinal symptomatic subjects and total symptoms in patients with H. pylori infection (R).
The combined use of C. butyricum reduced the changes in the intestinal flora and decreased the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects in patients going through H. pylori eradication therapy (R,R).
L. brevis treatment decreases H. pylori colonization in dyspeptic H. pylori patients and reduces polyamine biosynthesis (R).
B. subtilis containing probiotics improved H. pylori eradication and decreased diarrhea and total side effects, when used in conjuction with triple therapy (R).
S. boulardii has a positive effect on reducing the colonization of H. pylori in the human gastrointestinal system but is not capable of its eradication when used as single therapy (R).
In patients with H. pylori infection, there is evidence to recommend the use of S. boulardii along with standard triple therapy as an option for increasing the eradication rates and decreasing overall therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea (R,R,R,R,R,R).
S. boulardii administered in addition to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy nonsignificantly lowered the incidence of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and significantly lowered the incidence of stomatitis, constipation, and diarrhea in infected children (R).
S. boulardii improved anti-H. pylori therapy-associated diarrhea, epigastric discomfort, and treatment tolerability. In addition, S. boulardii decreased post-treatment dyspepsia symptoms independent of H. pylori status (R).
L. paracasei supplementation prevents bowel symptom onset in patients on long-term proton pump inhibitors (R).
28) Probiotics Reduce Inflammation
Supplementation with a synbiotic, which is a mixture of L. casei, L. rhamnosus, S. thermophilus, B. breve, L. acidophilus, B. longum, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and fructo-oligosaccharides, reduces inflammation markers in adults (R).
B. longum ssp. infantis reduced proinflammatory markers in patients with ulcerative colitis, chronic fatigue syndrome and psoriasis (R).
L. casei improved natural killer (NK) cell activity and produced a more anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in healthy non-immunocompromised elderly subjects (R).
L. paracasei significantly increases the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates the innate immune system in human enterocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) (R).
L. delbrueckiissp. lactis was shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects (R). Skimmed milk with L. delbrueckiissp. bulgaricus inhibits the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines produced by accessory white blood cells (R).
L. acidophilus alleviates inflammation in human intestinal epithelial cells (R).
L. animalis ssp. lactis added to yogurt post-fermentation has anti-inflammatory properties in healthy adults (R).
L. animalis ssp. lactis inhibits inflammation in elderly volunteers (R).
See individual probiotic posts for animal studies and technical information.
29) Probiotics are Beneficial in Autoimmune Disorders
Probiotics and prebiotics have a potential to curb the autoimmune response and are being considered as an alternative to detrimental immunosuppressive drugs (R).
Intestinal dysbiosis, characterized by a reduced Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (R). B. bifidum supplementation prevents CD4+ lymphocyte over-activation, and may help in restoring the Treg/Th17/Th1 imbalance present in patients with SLE (R).
30) Probiotics can Ameliorate Celiac Disease
Try B. longum
B. longum ssp. infantis reduces gastrointestinal symptoms in untreated Celiac disease (CD) patients (R).
Oral administration of B. longum ameliorates gliadin (gluten)-mediated perturbations in liver iron deposition and mobilization in rats with CD (R).
B. longum attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines and the CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response, and protects newborn rats against gliadin (gluten)-induced enteropathy (R).
Live B. animalis ssp. lactis bacteria can directly counteract the harmful effects exerted by celiac-toxic gluten (gliadin) to human intestinal cells (R).
L. casei induced complete recovery in mice with enteropathy such as Coeliac disease (R).
31) Probiotics are Beneficial in Liver Disease
Probiotics found in yoghurt, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaris and S. thermophilus improve liver function (R).
Probiotics Ameliorate NAFLD
Some probiotics and synbiotics improve liver and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (R).
In patients with NAFLD, L. acidophilus and B. lactis reduced serum levels of ALT, ASP, TC, and LDL-C (R).
In obese children with NAFLD, L. rhamnosus restored liver function (R).
Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, and S. thermophilus treatment for 4 months improved fatty liver severity and decreased BMI of children with NAFLD (R).
L. rhamnosus protects against NAFLD in mice, by increasing beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine and attenuating liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (R).
Treatment of L. plantarum for 5 weeks restored liver function in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and decreased the levels of fat accumulation in the liver. In addition, the bacterium significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokines (R).
L. casei protects against the onset of NAFLD in a mice (R), and suppresses nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development, by reducing blood lipopolysaccharide concentrations, suppressing inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, and reducing colon inflammation (R).
L. paracasei symbiotic (containing arabinogalactan, fructooligosaccharides) lessens NAFLD progression in rats, lowers inflammatory markers and reduces the severity of liver injury and insulin resistance (R).
L. johnsonii protects mice with NAFLD from liver steatosis and liver cell death (R).
C. butyricum increases cholesterol degrading enzymes and improves NAFLD in rats on a high-fat diet (R).
Probiotics are Beneficial in NASH
A synbiotic that contains five probiotics (L. plantarum, L. delbrueckii, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, B. bifidum and inulin) over 6 months in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) produced a significant decrease in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) levels (R).
B. longum and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) significantly reduced AST, CRP, HOMA-IR, blood endotoxin and steatosis in patients with NASH (R).
L. paracasei lowers liver fat deposition and serum ALT level in mice with NASH (R).
Probiotics Protect Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury
L. casei attenuates alcohol-induced liver cell damage (R).
In chronic alcohol-induced mice, whey fermented with L. casei significantly attenuates the increased levels of ALT, AST and triglyceride levels, increases antioxidant activity and improves liver parameters (R).
L. paracasei reduces total blood and liver cholesterol in rats and decrease liver damage due to alcohol intake (R).
Oral administration of L. brevis ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury and the fatty liver in mice. It significantly inhibited ALT and AST increase and decreased TG and total cholesterol in the liver (R).
Probiotics May Ameliorate Jaundice
Treatment of obstructive jaundice in rats with L. plantarum returned active liver barrier functions (R).
Probiotics Protect from Liver Injury
L. plantarum protects against oxidative stress and liver inflammatory injury in mice (R).
L. casei significantly improved the survival of rats with liver injury, via its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities (R).
Pretreatment with L. salivarius improves acute liver injury in rats (R).
L. salivarius exerts a good health-promoting effect in acute liver failure (R).
S. boulardii effectively prevents liver injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice (R).
Probiotics are Beneficial in Cirrhosis
B. faecium and B. subtilis shift the intestinal microbiota of patients with liver cirrhosis back towards levels observed in healthy subjects. These probiotics also reduce circulating endotoxin levels in cirrhotic patients with endotoxaemia (R).
B. longum and FOS improved biochemical parameters and neuropsychological tests in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) (R).
S. boulardii promotes liver function and slows down the progress of liver fibrosis in rats (R).
32) Probiotics Combat Allergies
Probiotics harmonize Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults (R).
Probiotics May Prevent Systemic Allergies
L. casei protects mice from acute allergic inflammation (anaphylaxis) (R).
Probiotics May Prevent Allergies in Newborns
Consumption of L. rhamnosus-fermented milk by mothers and offspring showed a reduction in physical allergic symptoms in newborn mice (R).
Neonatal mother-to-offspring colonization with B. longum reduces allergic responses in mice (R).
Probiotics are Beneficial in Asthma
L. salivarius decreases the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and shows beneficial immunomodulatory activity in asthmatic subjects (R).
B. breve shows promising probiotic properties and beneficial immunomodulatory activity in allergic asthma (R).
L. lactis significantly attenuates atopic esophageal and bronchoalveolar eosinophilic inflammation in mice (R).
L. paracasei administration to mothers during gestation/lactation protects against airway inflammation in mice offspring (R).
B. longum attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice (R).
Probiotics Alleviate Allergic Rhinitis
17/22 trials showed significant benefit of probiotics clinically, whereas eight trials showed significant improvement in immunologic parameters in allergic rhinitis (R).
Citrus juice fermented by L. plantarum can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (R).
C. butyricum can markedly enhance the efficacy of SIT on allergic rhinitis in patients with allergies (R).
Co-administration of C. butyricum markedly enhances the treatment of allergic rhinitis (R).
L. rhamnosus supplementation shows good clinical and immunologic response in children with allergic rhinitis (R).
Volunteers with seasonal allergic rhinitis treated with L. casei showed a significant reduction in levels of antigen-induced cytokines (R).
A significant reduction of nasal symptoms and improved quality of life were achieved in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis, who received L. paracasei when pollen scattering was low. However, the effects were limited during the peak period (R).
Subjects with a medical history of allergic rhinitis to grass pollen that received L. paracasei -fermented milk had lower nasal congestion and nasal itching (R).
In children with perennial allergic rhinitis, L. paracasei improved symptoms of sneezing, itchy nose, and swollen eyes (R).
L. paracasei improved the quality of life of subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis who were being treated with an oral H1-antihistamine. In this study, nasal symptoms had not changed, but ocular symptoms had consistently improved (R).
Heat-killed L. paracasei can effectively improve the overall quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis induced by house dust mite in human subjects (R).
L. acidophilus alleviates the symptoms in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (R).
Heat-killed L. gasseri improved nasal symptoms and pollen-specific IgE levels in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis (R).
The addition of L. johnsonii to levocetirizine improved perennial allergic rhinitis in children (R).
Intake of yogurt or powder supplemented with B. longum alleviated subjective symptoms and affected blood markers of allergy in individuals with Japanese cedar pollinosis (R,R,R). Nasal symptoms such as itching, rhinorrhea, and blockage, as well as throat symptoms tended to be relieved with this probiotic (R).
B. animalis ssp. lactis improved nasal symptoms in subjects suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis (R).
Check individual posts for more information and animal studies.
Probiotics Combat Food Allergies
L. rhamnosus decreased the allergic response to peanuts in children (R).
In milk-hypersensitive adults, L. rhamnosus has been shown to reduce the immunoinflammatory response (R).
L. plantarum reduces the allergenicity of soy flour (R).
L. salivarius, L. paracasei, B. animalis and B. bifidum prevent atopic sensitization to common food allergens and thereby reduce the incidence of atopic eczema in early childhood (R).
L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus degrades the allergenic whey protein β-lactoglobulin and inhibits IgE binding in allergic patients (R).
L. helveticus alone or in combination with S. thermophiles effectively reduces the antigenicity of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, the major allergens in cow’s milk (R).
L. helveticus can significantly degrade the major allergens in propolis, including esters of caffeic acid (R).
L. fermentum degrades αS1-casein and lowers the recognition and the binding of this casein to IgE from the blood of patients with cow’s milk allergy (R).
B. breve improves symptoms of allergic hypersensitivity to cow’s milk in infants (R).
Probiotics Alleviate Eczema
The combination of prenatal maternal (2-4 weeks) and postnatal pediatric (6 months) L. rhamnosus treatment in families with a history of atopic disease, significantly lowers the risk of eczema at the age of 2, 4 and 7 (R).
In infants receiving either L. rhamnosus or B. lactis after 2 months, eczema symptoms were significantly improved (R).
L. rhamnosus efficiently prevents the development of eczema and possibly also atopic sensitization in high-risk infants up to 6 years old (R).
Cumulative prevalence of eczema and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly reduced in the children taking L. rhamnosus (R).
B. animalis ssp. lactis significantly improved eczema symptoms in infants (R).
When administered to pregnant women with a family history of allergic diseases, a mixture of B. bifidum, B. lactis, and L. acidophilus significantly lowered the prevalence and incidence of eczema in infants at high risk of allergy (R).
B.breve reduced the risk of developing eczema and atopic sensitisation in infants at high risk of allergic disease (R).
B. bifidum has a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of eczema in infants (R).
The use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention (R).
Probiotics Prevent Atopic Dermatitis
Use of L. rhamnosus by mothers lowers the risk of developing atopic dermatitis during the first 2 years of life (R).
L. rhamnosus is effective in decreasing symptoms of atopic dermatitis after an 8-week treatment in children aged 4-48 months (R).
Daily intake of citrus juice containing heat-killed L. plantarum alleviates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in humans (R).
Heat-killed L. paracasei improved atopic dermatitis (AD) in adult patients (R).
Topical administration of an S. thermophilus-containing cream to patients with atopic dermatitis increased ceramide levels and improved the signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (i.e. erythema, scaling, pruritus) (R).
See individual probiotic posts for more information and animal studies.
33) Probiotics Alleviate Lactose Intolerance
L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus improve lactose digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and reduces symptoms of lactose intolerance (R).
34) Probiotics May be Beneficial in Histamine Intolerance
Note that some probiotics can produce/increase biogenic amines (see Safety section).
35) Probiotics can Decrease Oxalate
L. gasseri degrades oxalate in laboratory experiments and may be beneficial in managing oxalate kidney stone disease (R).
A mixture of L. casei and B. breve possess a variable lowering effect upon urinary oxalate excretion that may be dependent on dietary oxalate intake (R).
B. animalis ssp. lactis possesses the oxc gene, encoding oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, a key enzyme in oxalate degradation (R). B. animalis ssp. lactis significantly decreased urinary oxalate excretion in mice with hyperoxaluria by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine (R).
36) Probiotics are Beneficial for the Skin
Probiotics can restore acidic skin pH, alleviate oxidative stress, attenuate photoaging, improve skin barrier function, and enhance hair quality (R).
Topical application of probiotic bacteria has a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defense barriers. Additionally, probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit skin immune responses and eliminate pathogens (R).
Try: L. plantarum, B. breve
In clinical trials, L. plantarum significantly increased the skin water content in the face and hands. Volunteers in the probiotic group had a significant reduction in wrinkle depth at week 12, and skin gloss was also significantly improved by week 12. Skin elasticity in the probiotic group improved by 13.17% after 4 weeks and by 21.73% after 12 weeks (R).
L. paracasei contributes to the reinforcement of skin barrier function, inhibits water loss, decreases skin sensitivity and modulates the skin immune system leading to the preservation of skin homeostasis (R).
L. paracasei decreases skin sensitivity and increases barrier function recovery (water retention) in women (R).
L. johnsonii significantly inhibited the development of UVA-induced skin lesions in clinical studies (R).
B. longum extract, when applied to the skin, was able to improve inflammation parameters, decrease skin sensitivity, increase skin resistance against physical and chemical aggression, and decrease skin dryness in volunteers with sensitive skin (R).
L. lactis increased sebum content, thereby potentially reinforcing the skin barrier in healthy young women (R). L. lactis maintained skin hydration, and improved subjective skin elasticity in middle-aged Japanese women (R).
Ceramides play an essential role in the barrier and water-holding functions of the healthy skin. A significant increase in skin ceramide levels was observed in healthy subjects after treatment with a cream containing a preparation of S. thermophilus (R).
Topical treatment with an S. thermophilus-containing cream increased ceramide levels and increased hydration in the skin of healthy elderly women (R).
B. longum exerts photoprotective effects on the skin in mice (R).
B. bifidum decreases the amount of intracellular melanin and exhibits antioxidant properties in mice, and may be beneficial as a skin-whitening ingredient in various skin hyperpigmentation disorders (R).
L. brevis increases blood flow and decreases transepidermal water loss in rats, and could be a useful substance in the treatment/prevention of skin problems, specifically chapped or dry skin (R).
Animal research on L. reuteri has shown potential for improving skin quality (thickness and “glow”) and creating thick, lustrous hair (R).
For technical information, check individual probiotic chapters:
- B. animalis (B. lactis)
- B. bifidum
- B. breve
- B. coagulans (L. sporogenes)
- B longum
- B. subtilis
- C. butyricum
- L. acidophilus
- L. brevis
- L. casei
- L. crispatus
- L. delbrueckii (L. bulgaricus, L. lactis)
- L. gasseri
- L. helveticus
- L. johnsonii
- L. lactis
- L. paracasei
- L. plantarum
- L. reuteri
- L. rhamnosus
- L. salivarius
- P. freudenreichii
- S. boulardii
- S. cerevisiae
- S. thermophilus
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