Intro to PPAR-alpha
I’ve spoken about PPAR gamma. This post is about its related kin PPAR alpha, which has somewhat different effects.
PPAR-alpha is a protein (transcription factor) that increases fat breakdown in the liver and elsewhere. A good metabolism is important for energy production.
PPAR-alpha alters the expression of a large number of genes.
PPAR-alpha is mainly found in the liver and brown fat, followed by the heart and kidney. Lower PPAR-alpha expression levels are found in the small and large intestine, muscle and adrenal gland.
The Benefits of PPAR Alpha
Activation of PPAR-alpha promotes uptake, utilization, and breakdown of fatty acids by increasing genes involved in fatty acid transport, binding, activation, and oxidation.
PPAR alpha helps with the detoxification of drugs and toxins .
PPAR alpha activators have been shown to improve animal models of multiple sclerosis (EAE) .
Males vs Females: PPAR Alpha Increases Th2 Immunity and Suppresses Th1 Immunity
PPAR Alpha Negatives
As mentioned, PPAR alpha can increase Th17 dominance .
How to Increase PPAR Alpha
- Pathways to activate PPAR alpha: SIRT1 , PGC-1a 
- Cold 
- Exercise 
- Sun/UVB (skin) 
- Fasting  – fasting increases SIRT1 via activation of PPAR-alpha in mice .
- DHEA 
- Zinc 
- Fish oil/DHA 
- R-Lipoic Acid 
- Hydroxytyrosol 
- Resveratrol 
- Cinnamon 
- EGCG [32, 33]
- Bitter melon 
- Epimedium/Icariin 
- Nicotinamide Riboside – NAD+ helps activate both PPAR-alpha and SIRT1 .
- Oregano – carvacrol , Biochanin A 
- Carnitine 
- Naringenin 
- PQQ 
- Genistein 
- Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) 
- Lion’s Mane 
- Leukotriene B4
- Gynostemma 
- Anandamide 
- Fenofibrate (drug)
Circadian Control of PPAR Alpha
PPAR alpha directly regulates the gene activity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha. Per2 interacts with nuclear receptors including PPAR alpha and Rev-Erb alpha and serves as a co-regulator of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription .
Drugs that increase PPAR alpha also increase the production of and reset circadian expression of Bmal1, Per2, and Rev-erb alpha in mouse livers. These drugs can phase advance the rhythmic expression (cause it to start earlier) of Bmal1, Per2, and Rev-erb alpha in several mouse peripheral tissues .
PPAR Alpha Inhibitors
PPAR Alpha Gene
Check out SelfDecode to see if you have these genes.
If you want to interpret your genes, you can put them into SelfDecode.
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