“It is not a daily increase, but a daily decrease. Hack away at the inessentials.”
― Bruce Lee
Top 7 Recommendations
I realize many people just want the bottom line. Here it is:
- Sun/UVB light (R) – UVB decreases IFNy in Th1 dominance, but increases it in Th2 dominance. It decreases both Th1 and Th2. It also decreases IgE responses.
- Curcumin (R)
- Luteolin 98% (R1, R2, R3, R4)
- Apigenin (R)
- Black Cumin Seed Oil (R)
- Fisetin (R, R2, R3, R4, R5)
- Resveratrol (R).
All of these can be combined, but start by taking one at a time for a few days before you start stacking.
Supplements/Methods To Decrease Both Th1 and Th2
- Lower thyroid hormone levels (R, R1)
- Rice (R, R2)
- Adenosine (R)
- SAM-e (R, R2) B6, B9, and B12 should theoretically also help.
- Bilberry/Anthocyanins (R, R2)
- Pregnenolone (R)
- Resveratrol (R),
- Curcumin (R),
- Luteolin (R1, R2, R3, R4)
- Apigenin (R)
- Theaflavins (R) (found in black tea)
- Black Cumin Seed Oil (R) – probably has more of a modulating role, since studies are all over the map with this one. It’s one of the few substances that has a powerful effect in healing both Th1 and Th2 dominant conditions. Maybe this is why it’s traditionally known as a panacea.
- Fisetin (R, R2, R3, R4, R5)
- Bromelain (R)
- Whey (R, R2) – also induces oral tolerance in Th1/delayed food sensitivities.
- Guggul (R)
- Carob/D-pinitol (R, R2)
- Rutin (R, R2)
- Stabilized R-Lipoic Acid (R, R2, R3)
- Apple polyphenols (R1, R2)
- Baicalin /Chinese skullcap (R)
Decreasing Inflammation By Inhibiting CD26, CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC
CD26, CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC are molecules on T helper cells, dendritic and other immune cells. These proteins are stimulatory and activate T helper cells (R). Decreasing them should help inflammatory conditions regardless of Th1/Th2 dominance.
The more these costimulatory signals cause the division of T cells, the more likely they are then to become ‘dormant’. (R)
By inhibiting these molecules, you also inhibit the maturation of dendritic cells (R). When these cells mature they become harmful.
Interleukin-10 has (1) immunosuppressive effect and (2) immunostimulatory effect. It down-regulates the expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class II antigens and co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages.
- Sun/UVB light (R) – clinical trial (MHCII – numbers decreased, but surface density increase)
- Vitamin D3 (R, R2) (CD80, CD86, and MHC II)
- Fish Oil/DHA+EPA (R) (CD40 and CD86)
- Curcumin (R, R2) (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC II, but not MHC I)
- Hi-Maize resistant starch/Butyrate/HDAC- (R) (CD40, CD80)
- Sialic Acid? (R) (MHC I&II, CD80 and CD86)
- Ginkgo (R) (CD86)
- Chlorogenic acid(R) (CD80, CD86)
- Red Wine Polyphenols (R) (CD40)
- EGCG (R, R2) (MHC I&II, CD11c, CD40, CD80 and CD86)
- Fisetin (R) (CD40)
- Black Cumin Seed Oil (R) (CD86, CD40, CD54, MHCII)
- Andrographis/andrographolide (R) (MHC I, CD40, CD80, CD86)
- Zinc sufficiency (R1, R2) (MHC II, CD86)
- Carob/D-pinitol (R) (CD80, CD86, MHC I&II)
- Ibuprofen (R) (CD28, CD80, CD86)
Bromelain (R) ( CD44, CD45RA, CD25, CD28, CD86)
- Apple polyphenols (R) (MHC-II/HLA-DR)
- Apigenin (R, R2) (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC I&II)
- Cinnamon/NaB (R) (MHCII, CD80, CD86, CD275)
- Silymarin (R)/Silibinin (CD80, CD86, MHC I&II)
- Bilberry (R) (CD40)
- Quercetin (R) (CD40)
- Olive leaf (R) (CD40)
- Extra Virgin Olive Oil (R) (CD40)
- Probiotics: L. plantarum (R) (CD80)
- Luteolin (R, R2, R3) (CD40, MHCII)
- Resveratrol (R) (CD40 on platelets)
- Galantamine (R)
- Red Yeast Rice/Statins: Atorvastatin (R), Simvastatin (R) (CD86)
There’s lots of contradictory information on zinc, but overall I am for supplementation unless you’re eating a lot of organ meat. Zinc has been shown to be beneficial in animals with higher than RDA levels and is especially important for the elderly (R). Zinc is also a good cancer preventative (R). Too much isn’t good, though.
Supplements That May Balance Th1/Th2 Immune System
- Grape seed extract (R)****Contradictory (R) -probably balancing
- Pine bark (R) – likely has the same effect as GSE
- Eleuthero/Siberian ginseng. A study shows it decreases cytokines that create Th1 and Th2 cells in healthy people (R), but a cellular study shows that it increase cytokines that are released by Th2 cells (R). It’s probably immune balancing.
- Baicalin/Chinese Skullcap (R)
- Rooibos(R). This has mixed effects and probably balances Th1/Th2
- Tribulus (R1+R2)
Be Wary: Supplements/Methods That Increase Both Th1 and Th2
- Thyroid hormones (R). I can confirm this through experimentation. When my thyroid hormone levels are higher, the inflammation I get from a food I’m intolerant to goes up 2-3 fold.
- Elevated IGF-1 (R, R2). IGF-1 is elevated by insulin secretion and amino acids like BCAA’s, leucine, methionine, lysine and tryptophan (R). Contradictory (R)
- Dairy (Bovine serum albumin, β-Lactoglobulin) (R)
- Ozone (R)
- Asian Ginseng (R) – Mostly stimulating, but also regulating. Ginseng has many compounds in it and the effects are complex and depend on dosage and other factors, but it seems to increase both systems in response to many types of immune challenges, even innocuous ones.
- Tulsi (R)
- Tocotrienols (R)
- Bacopa (R)
- Rhodiola (R)
- Echinacea (R)* -contradictory, probably only increases Th2.
- Tart Cherry (R)
- Aloe (R) – (increases IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in cancer cells)
- Almonds – specifically the skin (R)
- Asparagus Racemous (R)
- Licorice (R) – but eventually downregulates it because of glucocorticoids.
- Goji Berries (R) (increases IL-12, TNF, IL-1b, Nf-kB, AP-1, CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC II)
- IFNy (R) (increases MHCII)
- Lauric acid, (CD40, CD80, CD86). (R)
Disclaimer and Caveats
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