Uric Acid: Part 1 of a 3-Part Series
- Part 1: Uric Acid and Inosine Increase IQ, Productivity, and Lifespan
- Part 2: Causes of High Uric Acid, Associated Diseases, and Fixes
- Part 3: Why Low Uric Acid is Bad and What You Should Do About It
In 1904, Havelock Ellis found in his “A Study of British Genius” that there was an unusually high rate of gout among eminent men in his study. Gout is associated with higher volumes of uric acid (or urate) in the blood. He, therefore, suggested that it might have something to do with it (R).
Later investigators have examined this relationship, and there is indeed a correlation. A review found only a slight correlation between IQ and uric acid. However, there was a stronger correlation between uric acid and scholastic achievement, even after controlling for IQ (R).
Another study found a correlation (+.37) between uric acid and publication rates of university professors. This is extremely significant for just one measure tested. Insane (R).
Uric acid has a similar chemical structure to that of caffeine, and can maybe act as a natural stimulant (R).
Other Benefits of Uric Acid
Uric acid levels are much lower in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and a study with 11 people found correcting these levels are therapeutic (R).
In fact, it prevented the progression of MS in all 11 patients tested and even improved the symptoms of some patients (R).
However, recent studies indicate that these mechanisms couldn’t explain all of its beneficial effects in the brain (R).
In mice with autoimmune conditions, urate was beneficial and increased the survival rate (R).
How too much uric acid causes inflammation:
How to Increase Uric Acid
In general, diet was more of a factor in men in its ability to influence urate levels rather than women (R).
Inosine, found in liver and fish, is the most powerful way to increase uric acid levels (R). This is what’s used in studies with MS and Parkinson’s.
Inosine increases RNA and DNA production and blood oxygen carrying capacity, which preserves ATP levels.
In a clinical trial with MS patients, Inosine more than doubled uric acid levels (increased from 3.9 to 8.3).
It decreased Nitrotyrosine, a marker of cell damage and inflammation, by more than half (from 73 to 32) (R).
My Experience With Inosine: It’s Amazing
For my first dosage, I took 3 grams in one shot, as an experimental dosage.
For me, it certainly increases cognitive performance and is wakeful promoting. It works.
However, it also caused some slight pain in random places, one of which was my kidneys. Kidney stone formation is very common with inosine supplementation.
I’m still going to include 500mg 1X a day and see how that works in the long term.
There are some negatives to uric acid/inosine such as gout and kidney stones, so be careful. In studies with MS and Parkinson’s, kidney stones were quite common from inosine treatment (up to 1/4 people got it).
However, in the studies that were in a controlled environment, the patients were properly hydrated and none of them got kidney stones (R).
You need to drink a ton of water (over a gallon) and take potassium citrate to prevent kidney stones.
Uric acid is also capable of binding iron (R), so be careful if you’re anemic.
If you need to supplement with calcium because you’re not getting enough from your diet, it’s better to use the citrate form. I also recommend magnesium citrate.
I’m still taking a risk, but I like the effect enough that it’s worth it for me.
Uric Acid on SelfDecode
Genes that Control Uric Acid Levels
Uric acid levels are influenced by your genes. If you’ve gotten your genes sequenced, SelfDecode can help you determine if your levels are high or low as a result of your genes, and then pinpoint what you can do about it.
If you’re sick and tired of guessing about your health, SelfDecode can help you find specific answers that conventional doctors/diagnostics may never uncover.
The SLC2A9 gene encodes the glucose transporter 9 protein (GLUT4). It transports fructose and aids in the reabsorption of filtered urate by proximal tubules in the kidney. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene can cause hereditary hypouricemia due to reduced urate absorption (R).
- RS1014290 – The “G” allele is associated with a lower age at onset of Parkinson’s disease (R).Individuals with the TT genotype had higher blood uric acid levels after increasing their consumption of soft drinks (R). The GG genotype is associated with significantly higher serum uric acid levels when compared with the TT/TG genotypes (R).
- RS11722228– The “T” allele is linked to higher blood uric acid levels in females compared to males (R).
- RS12498742 – Each copy of the minor “G” allele reduces the risk of gout (R).
- RS13129697 – The “C” allele is linked to lower blood urate levels in the Croatian population (R).
- RS13131257 – The “T” allele is associated with lower blood uric acid levels in Mexican Americans (R).
- RS3733585 – The “G” allele is associated with cleft palate (R).
- RS3733591 -The “C” allele increases the risk of severe gout for some populations (R).
- RS3775948 -The “G” allele is associated with an increased risk of gout (R).
- RS4475146 – The “A” allele is associated with gout (R).
- RS6449213 -This variant is associated with higher blood urate levels (R).
- RS6832439 -The “A” allele is associated with decreasing blood uric acid levels (R).
- RS6855911 -The “G” allele is associated with less uric acid (R).
- RS734553 – The “T” allele is associated with gout (R).
- RS737267 – The GG genotype is associated with 1.25 times higher risk of gout (R).
- RS7442295 – The more common “A” allele is associated with higher blood urate levels and hyperuricemia (R).
This gene encodes a multifunctional transporter that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette family and controls the export of various compounds including urate using ATP (R).
- RS1481012 – The “A” allele is associated with an increased risk of gout (R). Heterozygous carriers of the minor allele “G” have a lower risk of colorectal cancer (R).
- RS2199936 – The “A” allele is associated with incident gout (R).
- RS2231137 -The T” (minor) allele is associated with:
- Increased activity of the drug Pravastatin in patients being treated for hyperlipidemia (R).
- Increased risk of tophaceous gout (R). This results in joint pain and arthritis.
- Possible increase in drug-induced toxicity (R).
- An increased survival rate in patients undergoing chemotherapy to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (R).
- Increased chance of toxic response following chemotherapy to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (R).
The C (major) allele is associated with:
- Higher resistance to imatinib therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CC) (R).
- RS2231142 -The T (minor) allele is associated with:
- RS2622604 -The T (minor) allele is associated with:
- Increased risk of developing myelosuppression and diarrhea in colorectal and lung cancer subjects being treated with irinotecan (R). This is because Irinotecan can be toxic to cells if it is not removed properly.
- RS2728125 -The “G” allele is associated with gout (R).
- RS72552713 -The “A” allele is associated with an increased risk of gout (R).
This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, and it transports urate. Found in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule of the kidney, this protein helps control the amount of urate present in the blood. This gene is thought to be the major luminal pathway for urate reabsorption in humans and mutations have been associated with raised blood urate levels and decreased fractional urate excretion (R).
- RS12800450 -The “T” allele is associated with reduced blood urate levels (R).
- RS505802 – The “A” allele is associated with gout arthritis in Han Chinese males (R).
The gene encodes a protein that is involved in the transport and excretion of organic anions. It also aids in the reabsorption of uric acid on the apical membrane of the proximal tubule in the kidneys (R, R2).
This gene encodes a sodium-dependent transporter that helps transport glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds, as well as urate. It is also associated with a higher risk of gout and hyperuricemia (R).
- RS1165196-The allele “C” is associated with an increased risk of gout in patients with normal uric acid excretion (R). It is also associated with a low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (R).
- RS1183201 -The minor “A” allele is associated with a reduced risk of gout in European and western Polynesian populations (R).
The gene encodes a voltage-driven transporter that transports intracellular urate and organic anions from the blood into kidney tubule cells (R).
- RS1165205 -The “A” allele is associated with higher blood uric acid levels (R).
- RS13198474 – The “G” allele is associated with schizophrenia (R).
- RS1408272 -The “G” allele is associated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin (R).
- RS548987 The “C” is linked to homocysteine concentrations (R).
- RS6910741 -The “T” allele is associated with mean arterial pressure (R).
This gene encodes uromodulin, a protein that is highly abundant in urine under physiological conditions. Defects in this gene are associated with various kidney diseases including glomerulocystic kidney disease with hyperuricemia (R).
- RS12444268 -The “A” allele linked to Type 1 Diabetes (R).
- RS12917707 – The minor “T” allele is associated with a lower risk of chronic kidney diseases (R).
- RS13333226 -The minor “G” allele is associated with a lower risk of hypertension (R).
- RS4293393 – The “T” allele is associated with kidney stones and chronic kidney disease. This SNP may also be associated with susceptibility to gout, hypertension, and diabetes (R).
HPRT1 Gene- The Enzyme That Recycles Purines:
This gene encodes hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, an enzyme that allows cells to recycle purines. Mutations in this gene can result in gout or Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (R).
PRPS1 Gene- The Enzyme That Helps Make Purines:
The PRPS1 gene encodes an enzyme called phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1, or PRPP synthetase 1. This enzyme helps produce phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP), which is involved in making purine and pyrimidine nucleotides (R).
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Irregular Uric Acid Levels?
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