CYP3A5 shares many similarities with CYP3A4. This would mean it possibly participates in the clearance of >50% clinically used drugs. However, a striking feature of this enzyme is that many people actually don’t have it. Read on to find more about the gene variants of this enzyme, and how they affect drug metabolism and disease risk.
CYP3A4 is one of the most important CYP enzymes. It is responsible for the clearance of approximately 45% – 60% of currently prescribed drugs. Different supplements, food additives, and other substances can inhibit CYP3A4 activity and, as a result, interfere with drug metabolism. Find out more about CYP3A4 function, gene variants, and supplements that can increase or decrease CYP3A4 activity.
CYP2E1 is an important detoxication enzyme involved in the metabolism of alcohol. It also metabolizes paracetamol (acetaminophen). This enzyme clears toxins, but can also activate them. CYP2E1 activity was associated with alcohol-related pathologies and cancer. Read on to find out more about CYP2E1 function, genetics, and factors that increase or decrease enzyme function.
CYP2D6 is one of the most important detoxication enzymes. CYP2D6 is responsible for the clearance of 20% of clinical drugs, including opioids (codeine, tramadol), antitumor drugs (tamoxifen), antidepressants (fluoxetine), and antipsychotics (haloperidol). In addition, CYP2D6 also metabolizes dopamine and serotonin, and the activity of this enzyme is often associated with human personality, behavior, and disease susceptibility. Read on to find out more about CYP2D6 function, gene variants, and supplements that increase or decrease CYP2D6 activity.
CYP2C19 is an important detoxication enzyme responsible for clearing approximately 10% of commonly used clinical drugs, including antidepressants (citalopram), proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole), and antiplatelet drugs (clopidogrel/Plavix). Elevated CYP2C19 activity is associated with depression. Read on to find our more about CYP2C19 function, gene variants, and supplements that decrease CYP2C19 activity.
CYP2C9 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. It is responsible for the clearance of up to 15-20% of clinical drugs, including antidiabetics (tolbutamide), antiepileptics (phenytoin, valproate), antihypertensive drugs (losartan), and anticoagulants (warfarin). CYP2C9 gene variants greatly affect the way we react to these drugs. Learn more about CYP2C9 function, genetics, and factors that increase or decrease CYP2C9 activity.
CYP1A2 is an important enzyme that helps break down toxins in our bodies. It is the key enzyme responsible for metabolizing caffeine, and therefore variations in the CYP1A2 gene have a big impact on how coffee will affect our bodies. CYP1A2 gene variants have also been associated with diabetes, bone density, and cancer. Read on to find out more about this enzyme, and the natural substances that can increase or decrease it.
Kombucha is one of my favorite fermented drinks. It gives me energy because of the lactic acid levels. In addition, it contains beneficial yeasts and bacteria, and several other beneficial substances. Read this post to learn more about the science-backed health benefits of kombucha.
This post describes:
- How homocysteine levels can affect your health
- How homocysteine can be toxic and inflammatory
- Lab tests for homocysteine levels, with optimal ranges
- Factors that influence homocysteine levels, including diet, lifestyle, and ways to support the methylation pathways given the relevant genetic information (i.e. MTHFR mutation)
- How you can optimize your homocysteine levels to improve your performance and wellbeing.
Alkaline phosphatase is a group of very important enzymes, including intestinal alkaline phosphatase, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase, and placental alkaline phosphatases. Read this post to learn more about the roles of alkaline phosphatase and how you can optimize this enzyme.
Ferritin stores iron and transports it to where it is required. In blood, it is an important indicator of the total iron stores. However, ferritin also participates in infections, inflammation, and malignancies. Elevated ferritin is often found in disorders with chronic inflammatory states such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Find out why it is important to keep this protein in balance, and which factors increase or decrease ferritin levels.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound generated from destroyed hemoglobin. Its yellow color is responsible for yellow skin in jaundice, and the yellow hue of urine and feces. Bilirubin also has some very beneficial antioxidant properties. Read this post to learn more about its effects on the body and how to manipulate bilirubin levels to your advantage.
To live in the 21st century is to live in a toxic world. Rapid urbanization and the increased burning of fossil fuels over the past century has made people more susceptible than ever to harmful chemicals in the air, soil, and water including carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and endocrine disrupting chemicals.
These pollutants increase the risk of many chronic illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, and lung disease, making it a significant global health problem.
Conditions linked to everyday chemicals—used in cosmetics, plastics and common household items like sofas—lead to $340 billion in treatment and lost productivity costs annually in the U.S. (R).
Controlled studies show that when you pump in volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide in the air to levels that are within the range of normal and found in office environments (the worst 25% of offices), many important parameters of cognition go down dramatically (R).
The magnitude of effects from breathing cleaner air are greater than any nootropic you may be taking. Cognitive scores were 101% better when there was lower volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide levels (R).
Read more to learn about the detrimental effects of pollution and environmental toxins on human health.