The hallucinogenic cactus peyote is a psychedelic substance that has been consumed by Native Americans for spiritual purposes for thousands of years. While its legal status has hindered research, science shows that its active compound, mescaline, is non-addictive, non-toxic, and may have health benefits. Read on to learn more about the benefits, mechanisms, and risks of taking peyote and mescaline.
What Is Peyote?
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii), also known as divine cactus or mescal buttons, is a cactus that grows from southern Texas to central Mexico. It is estimated that approximately 30 million people in the United States have used mescaline (peyote), LSD, or psilocybin. Peyote is known for its psychoactive properties and religious, medicinal, and recreational uses [R, R, R].
Peyote contains a compound called mescaline. Mescaline is a hallucinogenic molecule that alters human consciousness similarly to psilocybin (magic mushrooms) and LSD. Mescaline, psilocybin, and LSD affect serotonin activity in a way that is not fully understood [R, R].
Mescaline is found in the small, above-ground stem of the cactus. Experienced harvesters collect only the top few millimeters of the stem and leave the rest of the plant to regenerate [R].
Peyote can be consumed as fresh or dried buttons, powder, capsules, or tea [R].
Methods for making synthetic mescaline have also been developed [R].
History and Legality of Peyote Use
Traditional medicinal uses of peyote have included treatment for influenza, joint pain, toothache, intestinal disorders, diabetes, snake and scorpion bites, skin diseases, blindness, neurasthenia (a 19-20th-century diagnosis characterized by physical and mental fatigue), hysteria, and asthma [R, R].
Although peyote is generally illegal in the United States, it can be used legally in Native American religious ceremonies. The Native American Church has a specific exemption from the law criminalizing peyote [R, R, R].
Peyote in Clinical Research
Peyote (mescaline) has been used in clinical research since the 1890s [R].
Scientists and psychiatrists have been interested in studying the hallucinogenic effects of mescaline and LSD for insight into psychosis (a mental disorder characterized by a disconnect from reality). Sometimes their research has been controversial [R, R].
Researchers have disagreed as to whether hallucinogenic drugs are an appropriate tool for studying schizophrenia [R].
In addition to public opposition in the 1960s, medical concerns about hallucinogenic drugs have also been documented [R].
Hallucinogenic drugs were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970s [R].
Constituents and Mechanism of Action of Mescaline
Peyote contains the compounds lophophine, homopiperonylamine, lobivine, and mescaline [R].
Lophophine may be psychoactive.
Homopiperonylamine blocks serotonin receptors [R].
It is not clear if homopiperonylamine or lobivine are psychoactive.
Mescaline is a psychoactive phenylethylamine alkaloid. It acts similarly to LSD (an indoleamine), psilocin (a tryptamine), and psilocybin to alter consciousness, but with a longer onset and greater duration of effects than LSD, psilocin, or psilocybin [R].
A dose of 250 to 500 mg of mescaline will produce effects lasting 8 to10 hours [R].
Like LSD, psilocin, and psilocybin, mescaline is considered a serotonergic hallucinogen. Serotonergic hallucinogens act in a similar manner to serotonin, by activating serotonin receptors. Mescaline activates at least two serotonin receptors, the 5-HT2A receptors and 5-HT2C receptors [R, R].
Long-term use of mescaline produces changes in volume in certain brain regions (thinning the posterior cingulate cortex, thickening the anterior cingulate cortex) and receptor activity (decreasing 5-HT2A receptor binding in the cortex) [R].
How Peyote Affects the Mind and Body
According to non-scientific sources, physical effects start within 30 minutes to an hour of consuming peyote. Psychoactive effects begin after 1 to 2 hours. These include a feeling of calm and acceptance [R].
Mescaline can have a wide variety of physical and neurological effects, including:
- Increased heart rate (tachycardia) [R]
- Decreased heart rate (bradycardia) [R]
- Dilated pupils (mydriasis) [R]
- Changes in eye movements [R]
- Beta receptor (adrenaline receptor) blocking [R, R]
- Increased levels of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) [R]
- Changes in circadian rhythms [R]
- Reduced urination [R]
- Increased free fatty acids in the blood [R]
- Decreased urinary creatinine [R]
- Decreased urinary inorganic phosphorus [R]
- Numbness [R]
- Central nervous system (brain) stimulation [R]
- Brainwave changes [R]
- Increased and decreased activity in the right brain hemisphere (hyperfrontality, hypofrontality) [R]
Hormonal Effects of Peyote
Psychological and Sensory Effects of Peyote
Psychological and sensory effects of mescaline can include:
- Hallucinations [R]
- Changes in color perception [R]
- Changes in mood [R]
- Changes in perception of time [R]
- Sensory changes [R]
- Controlled schizophrenia [R]
- Light sensitivity [R]
- Depersonalization [R]
- Increased sense of meaning [R]
- Body image distortion [R]
- Rapid personality change [R]
- Apathy [R]
- Changes in sense of body position [R]
- Illusions of being touched [R]
- Blending of senses (synesthesias) [R]
- Feelings of omniscience [R]
- Stupor [R]
- A feeling of wellness (“afterglow”) lasting up to 6 weeks (according to a non-scientific source) [R]
The psychological effects of mescaline can be more apparent in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy users [R].
The user’s level of anxiety when taking mescaline may influence which psychological effects they experience [R].
Tolerance to Peyote
Tolerance to mescaline and cross-tolerance to psilocybin and LSD from taking peyote are possible [R].
Peyote in Drug Tests
According to a non-scientific source, mescaline can be detected by a drug test for 1 to 4 days after use [R].
Health Benefits of Mescaline in Peyote
1) Mescaline Can Improve Problem-Solving
In a pilot study of 27 adult males, a single dose of 200 mg mescaline sulfate improved creative problem-solving. Increased creativity was seen weeks after the study ended [R].
2) Mescaline and Mental Health
In a survey of 21,967 individuals reporting lifetime use of psychedelics, mescaline use was not associated with an increased rate of mental health problems. Additionally, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with a lower rate of mental health problems [R, R].
Mescaline has caused remission of psychiatric symptoms [R].
3) Mescaline and Learning
Mescaline improved the rate at which goldfish learned to avoid a shock in a shock-avoidance shock test [R].
Adverse Effects and Side Effects
- Psychologically-based movement abnormalities (catatonia)
In rats, mescaline:
- Increased the amount of time that is taken to crawl through a maze [R]
- Caused motor impairment [R]
- Increased memory decay without daily training [R]
- Increased food consumption [R]
- Caused aggression [R, R]
- Caused tremor [R]
- Increased the startle reflex [R]
In mice, long-term consumption of mescaline disrupted social hierarchies [R].
Risks of Mescaline/Peyote
1) Psychosis and Psychotic Reactions
Some responses to mescaline are negative [R].
Negative responses to mescaline have included reactions resembling schizophrenia [R].
Psychosis is a mental state characterized by loss of contact with reality.
According to one case report, an individual with a habit of withdrawal into fantasies during stress, who also took mescaline under stress, temporarily experienced worsening of his psychotic symptoms [R].
Mescaline is considered a major cause of drug-induced psychosis [R].
Psychotic reactions to mescaline may be more common in individuals with anxious and introverted personalities [R].
One study found a low rate of emotional disturbance associated with peyote use in Native American populations using it for religious purposes [R].
2) Other Negative Reactions to Mescaline
Mescaline may harm the fetus when taken during pregnancy [R].
Death under the influence of mescaline has been reported [R].
Peyote and Mescaline Are Not Addictive
Hallucinogenic substances including mescaline are not known to cause addiction [R].
A study of individuals who regularly consumed peyote found no cognitive or psychological deficits [R].
Illicit (non-religious) use of mescaline is not common among Native American adolescents with substance abuse problems [R].
Dosage for Mescaline and Peyote
A common dosage for fresh peyote buttons is between 50- 200 g and for dried, 10-40 g. The usual dosage for mescaline sulfate is 200- 400 mg.
Drug Interactions with Peyote
Hallucinogens may amplify the uncomfortable effects of high doses of caffeine.
Drugs That Block the Effects of Peyote
Sodium succinate is an antidote against mescaline psychosis [R].
In animal studies, effects or levels of mescaline were:
- Increased by clozapine [R]
- Increased by molindone [R]
- Increased by benzodiazepines (effect blocked by cyproheptadine, a serotonin blocker) [R]
- Increased by naloxone [R]
- Increased by parachlorophenylalanine [R]
- Increased or decreased by desipramine [R]
- Decreased by idebenone [R]
- Decreased by minaprine [R]
- Decreased by nebracetam [R]
- Decreased by tetrahydroaminoacridine (cholinesterase inhibitor) [R]
- Decreased by physostigmine (cholinesterase inhibitor) [R]
- Decreased or blocked by chlorpromazine [R]
- Decreased or blocked by thioridazine [R]
- Decreased by zotepine [R]
- Decreased by asarone [R]
- Decreased by Frenquel [R]
- Blocked by cinaserin [R]
- Blocked by perphenazine [R]
- Blocked by chlorprothixene [R]
- Blocked by l-methadone [R]
- Blocked by ritanserin (5-HT2 receptor blocker) [R]
- Blocked by ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor blocker) [R]
- Blocked by methysergide (serotonin blocker) [R]
- Blocked or decreased by haloperidol (dopamine blocker) [R, R]
In rats, mescaline:
Evidence from family, adoption, and twin studies suggests that addiction to hallucinogens in general is less likely to be something that runs in the family than addiction to other drugs such as cocaine [R].
“My first vivid show of mescal colour effects came quickly. I saw the stars, and then, of a sudden, here and there delicate floating films of colour—usually delightful neutral purples and pinks. These came and went—now here, now there. Then an abrupt rush of countless points of white light swept across the field of view, as if the unseen millions of the Milky Way were to flow a sparkling river before the eye. In a minute this was over and the field was dark. Then I began to see zigzag lines of very bright colours, like those seen in some megrims. I tried to fix the place and relation of these tints, but the changes were such as to baffle me. One was an arch of angled lines of red and green, but of what else I could not determine. It was in rapid, what I may call minute, motion.”
“I signed some legal papers reporting that my use of the substance was for purely religious purposes and off to the desert I was sent for what is called ‘The Spirit Walk.’ … I retired to my tent slowing ingesting the most disgustingly bitter tea of my life. As I relaxed on a lawn chair, literally in the middle of nowhere, I awaited the effects of the psychoactive substance in peyote, mescaline, to take effect. Ever so slowly, my body began to feel warm and intensely uncomfortable. A small buzz arose in my ears and it culminated in what seemed like the vomiting of the entire tea that I consumed over the space of about an hour. I swallowed the peyote capsules given to me with a splash of water, and slowly but surely, everything finally made sense.”
“For the psychologist, this agent should have value. To be able with a whole mind to experiment mentally upon such phenomena as I have described is an unusual privilege. Here is unlocked a storehouse of glorified memorial treasures of one kind. There may be a drug which shall so release a mob of verbal memories, or of musical records, or, in fact, of tastes and odours. I naturally speak of things seen under mescal influence as glorified memories—certainly nothing soon in these visions was altogether outside of my known experiences—but everything was expressive—forms were gigantic—colours marvelously intermingled.”
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