Evidence Based
0

Health Benefits of Hordenine + Side Effects & Dosage

Written by Carlos Tello, PhD (Molecular Biology) | Last updated:
Jonathan Ritter
Puya Yazdi
Medically reviewed by
Jonathan Ritter, PharmD, PhD (Pharmacology), Puya Yazdi, MD | Written by Carlos Tello, PhD (Molecular Biology) | Last updated:

SelfHacked has the strictest sourcing guidelines in the health industry and we almost exclusively link to medically peer-reviewed studies, usually on PubMed. We believe that the most accurate information is found directly in the scientific source.

We are dedicated to providing the most scientifically valid, unbiased, and comprehensive information on any given topic.

Our team comprises of trained MDs, PhDs, pharmacists, qualified scientists, and certified health and wellness specialists.

All of our content is written by scientists and people with a strong science background.

Our science team is put through the strictest vetting process in the health industry and we often reject applicants who have written articles for many of the largest health websites that are deemed trustworthy. Our science team must pass long technical science tests, difficult logical reasoning and reading comprehension tests. They are continually monitored by our internal peer-review process and if we see anyone making material science errors, we don't let them write for us again.

Our goal is to not have a single piece of inaccurate information on this website. If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please leave a comment or contact us at [email protected]

Note that each number in parentheses [1, 2, 3, etc.] is a clickable link to peer-reviewed scientific studies. A plus sign next to the number “[1+, 2+, etc...]” means that the information is found within the full scientific study rather than the abstract.

Hordenine is mainly found in barley and bitter orange. For this reason, drinking beer may raise blood hordenine levels. Very limited research in animals and cells suggests it may help increase energy and focus or whiten the skin. However, taking too much hordenine may cause false positives in drug tests and produce a variety of negative side effects. Read below to learn more about this barley compound.

What Is Hordenine?

Hordenine, otherwise known as N, N-dimethyltyramine, is an alkaloid mainly found in plants used as feed for animals, such as barley. Indeed, its name comes from the Latin name for barley (hordeum) [1].

It is adrenergic, meaning it causes brain cells to release the neurotransmitters epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). These neurotransmitters increase energy and focus and are part of the “fight-or-flight” response [1, 2, 3].

Several scandals involving racing horses given food containing hordenine to improve their performance have come to light. However, the slight increase in performance caused by hordenine is deemed insufficient to be considered cheating in most countries [1].

This is mainly because hordenine’s effects are short-lived and a very high concentration of hordenine is needed to bring about any noticeable effects [1].

In Canada, however, it is considered illegal and horses are not allowed to eat hordenine-rich diets [4].

Hordenine can be used to measure beer consumption, as hordenine levels in the blood increase significantly following consumption. For instance, a study suggested its use in forensic toxicology [5].

Food Sources of Hordenine

The main sources are:

  • Bitter orange [6]
  • Barley (more commonly beer brewed from this cereal) [7]

Snapshot

Proponents

  • Potential use to enhance alertness, energy, and focus
  • Potential use to help with diabetes
  • Potential use in skincare products
  • Potential use as antimicrobial

Skeptics

  • Lack of clinical trials
  • Unknown safety profile
  • May cause the buildup of other neurotransmitters
  • May cause blood pressure fluctuations
  • May cause seizures
  • May reduce UV protection
  • May damage the kidneys
  • May test positive for opioids

Health Benefits of Hordenine

Animal and Cell Research Lack of Evidence

No clinical evidence supports the use of hordenine for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.

1) Increasing Alertness, Energy, and Focus

Horses injected with hordenine (intravenously) showed increased alertness within two minutes. A 100% increase in heart and breathing rate accompanied this increased alertness. However, the effect only lasted 20 minutes and wasn’t observed when hordenine was given by mouth [4].

Hordenine increased response to noradrenaline in rats by 65%. A similar effect was also seen in guinea pigs. Indeed, hordenine didn’t increase alertness by itself, but by preventing noradrenaline removal [8, 9].

Because hordenine increases response to noradrenaline, some effects of this neurotransmitter, such as increased energy and focus, are possible after hordenine consumption. However, no clinical trials have been conducted [10, 11].

2) Diabetes

In diabetic mice, hordenine enhanced the effectiveness of insulin at reducing blood sugar levels before and after a meal. Additionally, it prevented kidney damage by reducing tissue scar, inflammation, and oxidative damage [12].

3) Skin Appearance

When melanin, a skin pigment, is overproduced, it can cause several skin disorders such as freckles, age spots, and melasma (brown patches on the face) [13].

Hordenine decreased melanin production in human cells by 30%. It achieved this by inhibiting cAMP production, which is responsible for expressing proteins needed to create melanin [13].

4) Antibacterial

In test tubes, hordenine prevented the following bacteria that often cause hospital-acquired infections from forming biofilms:

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa [14, 15, 16]
  • Serratia marcescens [17]

Note, however, that these are very preliminary results that haven’t been replicated in humans and even in animals. Further research is needed to determine if hordenine may be of any use in preventing and treating infections caused by these microorganisms.

Hordenine Side Effects, Limitations & Dosage

Keep in mind that the safety profile of hordenine is unknown, given the lack of clinical studies. The list of side effects below is not a definite one and you should consult your doctor about other potential side effects based on your health condition and possible drug or supplement interactions.

1) May Reduce the Breakdown of Other Neurotransmitters

Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inactivates hordenine. MAO-B is responsible for inactivating other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and phenylethylamine. When MAO-B is busy breaking down hordenine, it may cause other neurotransmitters to build up [8, 18].

Dopamine buildup can cause increased reactivity to stress [18].

2) May Cause Fluctuations In Blood Pressure

In cats, hordenine initially decreased blood pressure, but this was followed by a large spike. Afterward, blood pressure fluctuated from lower to higher values [19].

People sensitive to blood pressure changes should probably avoid hordenine.

3) May Cause Seizures

Hordenine increased seizures (measured by knee jerks) in cats [19].

It is a cholinesterase inhibitor, meaning it keeps the enzyme cholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine. Acetylcholine carries the signals from nerve cells, which for instance allows movement. By preventing cholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine, the body cannot naturally stop moving and may keep convulsing [19].

4) May Decrease Protection from UV Radiation

Melanin protects human skin by absorbing free radicals and preventing UV damage. Because hordenine may decrease melanin production, it can increase UV damage. In people without melanin overproduction (hyperpigmentation), hordenine may do more harm than good [13].

5) May Damage the Kidneys

Voles fed high doses of hordenine-containing foods developed damage in a region of the kidneys (the proximal tubules). Glycosuria, a disease in which glucose is released from the kidneys into the urine, occurred in 62% of the voles [20].

People with kidney issues may want to avoid hordenine.

6) May Cause False Positives in Drug Testing

Hordenine can cause false positives in the following drug tests for opioids [21]:

  • Morphine
  • Oxymorphone
  • Hydromorphone
  • Apomorphine

The main cause of high blood hordenine levels in humans is beer consumption. People who need to take opioid drug tests on a regular basis should avoid hordenine supplements and cut down on their beer consumption [21].

Dosage

Because hordenine is not approved by the FDA for any condition, there is no official dose. Additionally, the lack of clinical trials means there is no proven dose either. Users and supplement manufacturers have established unofficial doses based on trial and error. Discuss with your doctor if hordenine may be useful as a complementary approach in your case and which dose you should take.

A hordenine capsule supplement recommends taking one capsule of hordenine (50 mg) with each meal [22].

One study gave cats 5 mg/kg of hordenine without noticing any health effects and considered 10-30 mg/kg as ‘high’ doses [19].

Limitations and Caveats

Because there are no clinical tests on hordenine yet, there is no data on its potential health benefits and adverse effects in humans. More extensive testing is needed to confirm its preliminary results in animals.

User Reviews

The opinions expressed in this section are solely those of hordeine users, who may or may not have medical or scientific training. Their reviews do not represent the opinions of SelfHacked. SelfHacked does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment.

Do not consider user experiences as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified healthcare providers because of something you have read on SelfHacked. We understand that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource, but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified healthcare provider.

There are not many reviews out for hordenine, as its usage as a supplement is limited. One satisfied user claimed that hordenine provided them with energy throughout the day and gave.

Another user noted that it provided “serious stimulation” and increased well-being and pleasure without being addictive. He strongly recommended the supplement.

One reviewer recommended taking the supplement along with other pre-workout supplements.

About the Author

Carlos Tello

Carlos Tello

PhD (Molecular Biology)
Carlos received his PhD and MS from the Universidad de Sevilla.
Carlos spent 9 years in the laboratory investigating mineral transport in plants. He then started working as a freelancer, mainly in science writing, editing, and consulting. Carlos is passionate about learning the mechanisms behind biological processes and communicating science to both academic and non-academic audiences. He strongly believes that scientific literacy is crucial to maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid falling for scams.

Click here to subscribe

RATE THIS ARTICLE

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars
(3 votes, average: 5.00 out of 5)
Loading...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.