Acetylcholine is a hot topic within the realm of memory enhancement. It is a neurotransmitter that is critical for the everyday functioning of the brain, particularly in the areas of movement, learning & memory, and sleep quality. Check out this post to learn how to promote balanced acetylcholine in your body and function at your very best.
What is Acetylcholine?
Acetylcholine is used by organisms in all domains of life for a variety of purposes. It is believed that choline, a precursor to acetylcholine, was used by single-celled organisms billions of years ago, for creating the cell layers [R].
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is used for many things: from stimulating muscles to memory and sleep.
Acetylcholine is synthesized from acetyl-CoA (which comes from glucose) and choline, with the help of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase [R].
Benefits of Acetylcholine
1) Acetylcholine Helps Memory
Too little acetylcholine in the memory center of the brain (hippocampus) has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s [R].
In monkeys, disruption of the supply of acetylcholine to the brain (neocortex, hippocampus) impairs the acquisition of factual information (discrimination learning) and also produces forgetting comparable to amnesia in humans [R, R].
In 1391 people, higher choline intake was related to better cognitive performance (verbal and visual memory) [R].
Drugs that increase acetylcholine are commonly used to help treat Alzheimer’s [R].
Acetylcholine may enhance memory by helping encoding new memories and increasing the modification of synapses [R].
In 24 male, choline supplementation (500-1000mg, CDP choline) improved a variety of cognitive processes (including working memory and verbal memory), but only in low cognitive baseline performers (i.e. less intelligent people) [R]. CDP choline works in part by increasing acetylcholine.
2) Acetylcholine May Improve Attention and Alertness
Historically, acetylcholine has been thought to mainly be important in learning and short-term memory functions. However, more recent studies have provided support for acetylcholine’s role of in attentional effort [R].
In rats, acetylcholine helped improve attention and task performance [R].
Sixty healthy adult women aged 40 – 60 who took choline supplements (CDP-choline) for 28 days had improved attention [R].
Acetylcholine is also important for enhancement of alertness when we wake up [R].
3) Acetylcholine Helps Lower Inflammation
Acetylcholine has such a significant influence on decreasing inflammation that it has a pathway named after it: “The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” [R].
Inflammatory cytokines are produced by cells of the immune system during injury and infection. These contribute to initiating a cascade of effects which recruit inflammatory cells to the site of infection in order to contain it.
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway provides a braking effect on the immune response, which protects the body against the damage that can occur if a localized inflammatory response spreads beyond the local tissues, which results in toxicity or damage to the kidney, liver, lungs, and other organs [R].
Activation of the vagus nerve exerts its anti-inflammatory action via acetylcholine [R].
Decreased vagus nerve activity occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as a result of less anti-inflammatory activity by acetylcholine activation [R].
In animals, increased acetylcholine reduced gut mucosal inflammation (MHC II level and pro-inflammatory cytokines via α7nAChR) [R].
Acetylcholine has been shown to reduce IL-6, IL1B, TNF-a and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in different inflammatory conditions, including IBD [R].
Acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) are found on various immune cells (macrophages, monocytes and mast cells), and reduce inflammation by inhibiting their activation [R].
However, acetylcholine (via nAChR) also suppresses production of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10).
4) Acetylcholine Improves Wakefulness
Acetylcholine release is increased during wakefulness [R].
In rats, sedative and hypnotics (zolpidem, diazepam, and eszopiclone) alter acetylcholine release [R].
5) Acetylcholine Helps You Sleep Better
Acetylcholine promotes REM sleep, which helps memory storage and for the brain to rest [R].
6) Acetylcholine Helps Gut Movement
Nicotine ( via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) helps gut flow.
This is why when 1 in 6 people stop smoking, they get constipation [R].
Also, antidepressant drugs are able to inhibit this acetylcholine receptor commonly causes constipation as a side effect [R].
The part of the nervous system responsible for ‘rest and digest’ (parasympathetic) uses acetylcholine to cause these effects [R].
7) Acetylcholine Helps Pain Reduction
Directly activating choline receptors or increasing acetylcholine reduces pain in rodents and humans, while blocking choline (muscarinic) receptors increases pain sensitivity [R].
Higher levels of acetylcholine in the spinal cord cause pain relief, whereas decreasing acetylcholine levels or activity (via receptor blockade) pain sensitivity [R].
Donepezil, a drug that increases acetylcholine, produces a dose-dependent pain relieving effect in humans and is also effective as a preventative treatment for migraines [R].
Activating the nicotinic receptors also exerts anti-pain effects in animal models of acute as well as chronic pain states [R].
8) Acetylcholine Protects Against Infections
Acetylcholine can modulate inflammatory responses. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit biofilm formation during a fungal infection (Candida albicans) in an animal model of infection [R].
9) Acetylcholine Improves Blood Flow
Acetylcholine in the blood increases production of nitric oxide in the blood vessels (via muscarinic receptors), leading to improved blood circulation (vasodilation) [R].
10) Acetylcholine and Hormones
Negative Effects of Acetylcholine
The association between smoking and depression has been reported in many studies [R].
In chronic smokers, acetylcholine (nicotinic) receptors are increased, rather than decreased, as is often the case with chronic substance use. It could be the increase in these receptors which contribute to the association of depression and smoking [R].
How to Increase Acetylcholine
Supplements for Acetylcholine Deficiency
When it comes to the herbs listed, they increase acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks them down – acetylcholinesterase. Most common herbs have some inhibitory activity against the enzyme.
- Foods with Choline (Eggs, Liver)
- Choline supplements
- Bacopa (R)
- Huperzine A
- Epimedium (R)
- Caffeine (R)
- Blueberries (R)
- Zinc (R)
- Copper (R)
- Grapeseed Extract (R)
- Cinnamon (R)
- Tulsi (R)
- Gotu Kola (R)
- EGCG [R]
- Curcumin [R]
- Manganese, in the presences of citrate, increases acetylcholine synthesis [R]
- DHA and dietary fish oils [R]
- Luteolin enhances choline, which in turn increases acetylcholine in the body [R]
- Quercetin (high dose) (R)
- Fo-ti (R)
- Saffron (R)
- Reishi (R)
- Carvacrol (R)
- Rhodiola (R)
- Rehmannia (R)/Catalpol (R)
- Noni (R)
- Schisandra (R)
- Magnesium (potentiates) (R)
- Andrographis (weak) (R)
- Fenugreek (R)
- Melatonin (R)
- Ginger (R)
- Danshen (R)
- Licorice (R)
- Sulforaphane (R)
- Ginseng (R)
- Propolis (R)
- Muira puama (R)
- Insulin (R)
- Fasting (R)
A lot of drugs can inhibit acetylcholine, either by imitating it or inhibiting choline [R].