Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is often produced in response to biological stress.
Benefits of ACTH
ACTH Prevents Cortisol Deficient-Related Diseases
Addison disease or primary adrenal insufficiency can be caused when there is not enough ACTH (R). Secondary adrenal insufficiency causes severe fatigue, loss of appetite,
Pituitary insufficiency – the front of the pituitary gland stimulates ACTH production and so an insufficiency would lead to a consequential ACTH insufficiency (R). The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which regulates ACTH production. An insufficiency limits ACTH production (R).
Defects in enzymes involved in cortisol synthesis prevents enough production of certain important hormones. In children, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (enlargement of the organ) regular formation of genital formation especially, can be stunted but can be treated with proper medication (R).
ACTH acts as an anti-inflammatory and decreases inflammatory cytokines (R).
ACTH also enhances transcription of mitochondrial genes that encode for subunits of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation systems.
These actions are probably necessary to supply the enhanced energy needs of adrenocortical cells stimulated by ACTH (R).
If this is physiologically important, it probably functions in conditions with short-period or intermittent ACTH signaling, since with continual exposure of osteoblasts to ACTH, the effect was lost in a few hours.
Drawbacks of ACTH
Too Much ACTH Causes Cushing Syndrome
ACTH-producing tumor causes slightly less intense of symptoms as regular Cushing syndrome (R).
ACTH Can Increase Blood Pressure and Anxiety
ACTH increases blood pressure in humans [R].
ACTH acts on the Serotonin pathway to increase anxiety [R].