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What is Arabinogalactan?
Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer that is made up of two different simple sugars (monosaccharides) such as arabinose and galactose. Arabinogalactan in nature comes from two different classes which are microbial arabinogalactan and plant arabinogalactan. (R, R2)
Microbial arabinogalactan exists in the cell walls of plant cells and acts as clusters of carbohydrates. This gives the cell wall more structure by connecting sugar and amino acid polymers found outside of the bacterial outer membrane (peptidoglycan) with outer fatty acids (mycolic acid layer). (R)
Larch arabinogalactan ferments in the stomach and intestines which break down carbohydrates into short chained fatty acids; Short-chained fatty acids are broken down and increases cell proliferation through growth factors.
Arabinogalactan Essential in Plants
Plant arabinogalactan is often found in many “gums” and acts as a glue to seal open areas on the cell wall. (R)
A study in plant stems showed that reduced amounts of arabinogalactan correlated with the decrease in strength and stiffness. (R)
The presence of arabinogalactan showed an increase in the growth and development of kale microspore cultures. (R)
Arabinogalactan also acted as a medium that added favorable wetting properties to the plants as well as increasing hydrogen bonding. (R)
The wetting properties allowed arabinogalactan to resurrect many dried out plants. (R)
Arabinogalactan is also required for normal growth of Rockcress roots that have elevated salt concentrations. (R)
In another study, the presence of arabinogalactan in barley recognized by certain antibodies (LM2, LM14, and MAC 207) increases root hair development. (R)
My Experience With Arabinogalactan
Since I’m Th1 dominant, Arabinogalactin noticeably spiked my immune system, which wasn’t good for me.
Health Benefits of Arabinogalactan
1) Arabinogalactan Helps Combat Cancer
Arabinogalactan reduced the colonization of lymphoma cells in the liver of DBA/2 mice.
The presence of arabinogalactan also prevented secondary sarcoma tumors in the liver of mice.
Arabinogalactan can be used as a concurrent therapy with cancer treatment, increasing immune system activity while combating cancer.
A dosage of 4 grams per day increased the concentration of cancer-killing white blood cells. (R)
In a study outside of human peripheral blood cells containing lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, NK cells), larch arabinogalactan increased NK cells’ ability to kill tumor cells through increases in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) (R)
A different study showed that arabinogalactan from ginseng inhibited the growth of new blood vessels in nude mice and the development of new blood vessels is a crucial part of tumor development. (R)
2) Arabinogalactan Improves Immune System
Larch arabinogalactan reduced cold incidences by 23% by increasing the body’s potential to fight off cold infections. (R)
Acetone precipitated (TA-P) isolated from the stem bark of tropical almond trees having the presence of arabinogalactan showed a decrease in coughing by a percentage of 54.8% in guinea pigs. (R)
In cells and animals, larch arabinogalactan has shown to enhance the defenses of our immune system. (R)
Arabinogalactan also showed an increase in intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus), benefitting the digestive tract. (R)
Arabinogalactan that is broken down into galactan can be important in the activation of white blood cells (macrophages). (R)
It can also increase the amount of interferon gamma released which is the main activator of white blood cells (macrophages).
3) Arabinogalactan Alleviates Allergies
Arabinogalactan reduces inflammation and reduces the inflammatory response to allergies. (R)
4) Arabinogalactan Helps Combat Pathogens
Arabinogalactans are shown to have substantial effects on bacterial adherence.
Arabinogalactans have also shown an increase in the potency of antiviral drugs.
Supplementation of larch arabinogalactan slightly increased the activation of T-helper cells (CD4 white blood cells), preventing opportunistic infections.
Aqueous and alkaline extracts of Arabinogalactan from the leaves of Stevia plants (Stevia rebaudiana) showed antiviral activities against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) in cells. (R)
Arabinogalactan administered to forty-four patients had a decrease in the bacteria Smegmatis (in leprosy cases). (R)
5) Arabinogalactan Increases Butyrate
Arabinogalactan increases the amount of colonic butyrate.
It also showed a decrease in the concentration of ammonia in the colon.
Studies have shown that unprocessed and acid-treated larch arabinogalactan will not impair galectin functionality in the human body. (R)
6) Arabinogalactan Helps Reduce Pain
7) Arabinogalactan and Its Antidiabetic Properties
Arabinogalactan in Drug Delivery
Plant arabinogalactan anchors itself to many proteins on the cell wall resulting in arabinogalactan proteins that act as a mediator between the cell wall and anything that comes into contact with it. (R)
Arabinogalactan binds to liposome ligands on the surface of the cell holding them down while they carry cancer-fighting drugs (doxorubicin hydrochloride). (R)
The anchored liposome cells release the cancer-fighting drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride) in acidic pH levels. (R)
Liposomes loaded with the drug were found to be around the 200 nanometers in size and had above a 90% drug entrapment efficiency. (R)
Arabinogalactan is an activator of large and small white blood cells (R)
Arabinogalactan can also be used as a structural component in helping deliver cytotoxic agents (betulin esters) to fight cancer cells. (R)
Aside from battling cancer, a combined dose of 1:10 aspirin and arabinogalactan showed to be twice as safe for the mucous membrane layer of the stomach (gastrointestinal mucosa) compared to pure aspirin. (R)
Safety, Potential Risks and Side Effects of Arabinogalactan
Arabinogalactan can increase the activity of the immune system which can increase the symptoms of autoimmune diseases. (R)
Arabinogalactan has been approved by FDA to be used in food.
Studies show that a laboratory diet consisting of 50% larch arabinogalactan posed no ill threats towards animal subjects after 6 months.
Studies have shown that 4 grams per day served in orange juice among 51 young adults increased the percentage of white blood cells (blood CD8+ T-suppressor cells) that killed cancer cells, cells infected with viruses and damaged cells. (R)