Introduction to the Parathyroid Hormone
The Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was originally discovered as a hormone associated with cancer. However, it has been found that it is an important part of regulating substances secreted by a cell and acting on neighboring cells in various tissues.
The Parathyroid hormone plays an important role in maintaining calcium-phosphate metabolism in bone remodeling. The production of the hormone increases when there are low calcium levels. A continuous secretion of the parathyroid hormone leads to bone loss. However, at low doses, the hormone has positive effects on bone volume and microarchitecture. [R]
Its role is to develop cartilage and bone as well as regulating bone formation and remodeling. Evidence in mouse genetics shows that PTHrP is generated in bone for normal bone remodeling. Whereas the main function of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism.
The hormone related protein and the parathyroid hormone itself share the common protein receptor PTHR1. PTHrP also resembles the parathyroid hormone in a way that it has the ability to promote the transfer of calcium through the placenta of a mother to the fetus. With these abilities, there is much interest to develop PTHrP to enhance therapeutic synthesis of living organisms.[R]
PTH regulation is influenced by many factors such as bone mineral content, vitamin D status, age, gender, training state, and other metabolic factors.
PTH did not prevent radiation-induced bone injury in mice. [R]
Parathyroid hormone levels are useful to diagnose chronic heart failure and can predict hospitalization. In a study of 125 consecutive hospitalized patients with heart failure indicated the predicted values of PTH for readmission due to heart failure and the cutoff point of PTH levels for discharge. A regression model indicated an association between PTH levels and readmission into the hospital due to heart failure. The study revealed that PTH levels in hospitalized patients with heart failure were shown to be an independent predictor of discharge. Also, the PTH level at the point of discharge was the best predictor of readmission or death within one year due to heart failure.[R]
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. In this study, the objective was to find the correlation between the parathyroid hormone and hematocrit levels, the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood, in chronic kidney disease. Eighty participants between the ages of 29 and 70 years old with chronic kidney disease with hemodialysis were involved in this study. Hematocrit and parathyroid levels were measured and observed. The results from the study showed that there is an inverse correlation between parathyroid and hematocrit levels. This correlation may help in assessing the cause of unexplained low hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease patients.[R]
Increasing and Decreasing PTH
The amount of PTH in the body may also influenced by the amount and intensity of exercise a person gets. Physical activity has been shown to produce bone mass. Several studies show that exercise enhances the PTH concentration in the body. One study on young male cyclists revealed a significant increase in PTH during and after a 50-minute ventilatory threshold workout. A similar result was shown in a study on 12 healthy male athletes who ran for 2 periods of 21 minutes. [R]
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