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Chloride Blood Test: Normal, Low, or High Chloride Levels?

Written by Carlos Tello, PhD (Molecular Biology) | Last updated:
Puya Yazdi
Medically reviewed by
Puya Yazdi, MD | Written by Carlos Tello, PhD (Molecular Biology) | Last updated:

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Chloride is an essential element in the blood that plays an important role in acid and electrolyte balance, kidney and muscle function, and transport of minerals, water, and gases. Both high and low blood chloride levels can cause health issues. Keep reading to learn more about chloride, the disorders caused by changes in its concentration, and how to resolve them.

What is Chloride (Cl-)?

Chloride is an essential electrolyte (a mineral that conducts electricity when in water). Chloride is the body’s main anion (negatively charged electrolyte) and represents 70% of the total negative electrolytes [1, 2].

Along with other electrolytes, chloride helps maintain [2, 3]:

  • A healthy mineral concentration, acid level, and electrical balance of the body fluids
  • Fluid and mineral movement between cellular compartments
  • Acid production in the stomach
  • Kidney function
  • Muscular activity
  • Blood pressure
  • Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide by red blood cells

The average adult consumes 5.8-11.8 g chloride a day from salt [2].

Chloride is mainly excreted through the kidneys into the urine (although 99.1% is reabsorbed), dependent on the body requirements and chloride intake [4, 2].

What Is the Chloride Blood Test?

Chloride levels are usually measured with a blood test, which is done as part of an electrolyte or metabolic panel. It can also be measured via sweat, serum, urine, and feces, in certain circumstances. The test measures the concentration of free chloride and the results are shown in milliequivalents of chloride per liter of blood (mEq/L) [2, 5].

Lab results are commonly shown as a set of values known as a “reference range”, which is sometimes referred to as a “normal range”. A reference range includes the upper and lower limits of a lab test based on a group of otherwise healthy people.

Your healthcare provider will compare your lab test results with reference values to see if your chloride results fall outside the range of expected values. By doing so, you and your healthcare provider can gain clues to help identify possible conditions or diseases.

Remember that some lab-to-lab variability occurs due to differences in equipment, techniques, and chemicals used. Don’t panic if your result is slightly out of range – as long as it’s in the normal range based on the laboratory that did the testing, your value is normal.

However, it’s important to remember that a normal test doesn’t mean a particular medical condition is absent. Your doctor will interpret your results in conjunction with your medical history and other test results.

And remember that a single test isn’t enough to make a diagnosis. Your doctor will interpret this test, taking into account your medical history and other tests. A result that is slightly low/high may not be of medical significance, as this test often varies from day to day and from person to person.

Normal Chloride Levels

The normal ranges for chloride levels are [1]:

  • Premature babies: 95-110 mEq
  • Full-term babies: 96-106 mEq
  • Children and adults: 95-105 mEq

Low chloride levels (<95-100 mEq/L) are referred to as hypochloremia, while high levels (>106-110 mEq/L) are known as hyperchloremia. It is important to note that certain conditions can interfere with the analyses and result in artificially high or low chloride levels [1].

For instance, if the blood contains excess solid material (excess triglycerides or plasma cell cancer), it can interfere with the electrode, incorrectly registering as lower chloride levels [6, 7].

Conversely, electrolytes like iodide and bromide or drugs like salicylate can be incorrectly picked up by the electrode and register as higher chloride levels (such as in case of poisoning) [8, 9, 10].

Normal Electrolyte Levels

To maintain blood as an electrically neutral fluid, the concentration of positively charged electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) must equal the concentration of negatively charged electrolytes (chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulfate, and organic electrolytes) [11].

Only sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate are normally measured in blood tests. The difference between non-measured negative and positive electrolytes is called “anion gap” and is used for quality control, and to diagnose acid-base disorders, excess of antibodies in the blood (paraproteinemia), and poisoning with lithium, bromide, and iodide [12, 13, 14, 15, 8].

Normal concentrations of the main electrolytes inside the cells (left) and in blood (right). Source: [16].

Low Chloride (Hypochloremia)

The conditions we discuss here are commonly associated with low chloride, but this single symptom is not enough for a diagnosis. Work with your doctor to discover what underlying condition might be causing low chloride levels and to develop an appropriate plan to improve your health.

Symptoms of Hypochloremia

Symptoms of severe chloride deficiency are normally related to metabolic alkalosis (high blood pH) and include [17, 2]:

  • Apathy
  • Confusion
  • Irregular heart rate
  • Cramps in muscles and nerves

Causes of Low Chloride Levels

1) Excessive Chloride Loss

Blood chloride levels can drop if it is excreted in excessive amounts through the kidneys or through the digestive system [18].

Through the kidneys, this is due to:

  • Excessive use of diuretics [19, 20]
  • Genetic defects of electrolyte channels in the kidneys (e.g., Bartter’s and Gitelman syndromes) [21, 22]
  • High concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood with increased bicarbonate intake (respiratory acidosis) [23, 24]
  • Excess levels of the hormone aldosterone in blood [25]

Through the digestive system, this is due to:

  • Frequent vomiting [26]
  • Abuse of laxatives [27]
  • Stomach pumping [28]
  • Evacuation through a surgical opening of the end of the bowel through the belly (ileostomy) [29]
  • Narrowing of the opening of the stomach into the bowel [30]
  • Watery diarrhea [31]
  • Secretion through tumors in the bowel (McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome) [32]

2) Insufficient Chloride Intake

The recommended minimum daily intake of chloride is 2.3 g. Because the average adult consumes 5.8-11.8 g/day, chloride malnutrition is very rare [2].

A soy-based formula with very low chloride content (0-2 mEq/L) caused low blood chloride levels and metabolic alkalosis in babies in a study on 13 people. It also occurred in 4 out of 153 babies with mothers with eating disorders [33, 34].

Similarly, a liquid nutritional product for individuals with severe disabilities caused chloride deficiency in a study on 59 people [35].

Cystic tissue scarring is a hereditary syndrome that causes low blood chloride levels because it is not absorbed through the kidneys and bowel [36].

3) Excess Fluid Intake

Infusion with high volumes of low-salt fluids reduces the concentration of electrolytes (including chloride) in the blood [37].

An anorexic woman who drank large amounts of water developed low blood chloride, sodium, and potassium levels, as well as headache, vomiting, and seizures [38].

People with congestive heart failure retain large amounts of fluids and develop resistance to diuretics, which causes low blood chloride levels [39].

The excessive release of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin causes an increased return of water to the blood circulation by the kidneys and thus reduces electrolyte levels [40].

4) Metabolic Alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis (high blood pH) is a result of [41]:

  • Increased bicarbonate production/intake
  • Decreased bicarbonate excretion
  • Loss of hydrogen ions

The loss of a positively charged electrolyte (hydrogen) and/or buildup of a negatively charged electrolyte (bicarbonate) promote the elimination of chloride to balance positive and negative charges [11, 42].

Infusion or intake of high volumes of sodium bicarbonate causes blood alkalosis and may lead to chloride being exchanged for bicarbonate to maintain blood neutrality [3].

5) Electrolyte Imbalance

Because the blood concentration of positively charged electrolytes must equal that of negatively charged electrolytes, conditions that cause the loss of sodium and potassium often result in low blood chloride levels [11].

Consequences of Low Chloride Levels

1) Low Chloride Levels and Death Rate

A relationship between low blood chloride levels and increased death rate has been demonstrated in several studies on:

  • Over 9000 healthy people [43]
  • Almost 6000 people with heart failure [44, 45, 46, 47]
  • Almost 1500 critically-ill people [48, 49, 50]
  • Over 3000 people recovering from a stroke [51]
  • Almost 300 people with excessive blood pressure inside the lung vessels [52]

Similarly, low blood levels of chloride, sodium, and albumins due to malnutrition reduced the survival of HIV patients taking antiretroviral therapy in a study on over 600 African women [53].

2) Low Chloride Levels and Kidney Function

The incidence of kidney injury increased in patients with low blood chloride levels in a study on over 13000 people undergoing contrast-enhanced tomography [54].

In another study on over 6000 critically ill people, low blood chloride was a risk factor for the development of kidney injury [55].

Factors that Can Increase Blood Chloride

The most important thing is to work with your doctor to treat any underlying conditions causing your low chloride levels. The additional strategies below are other things that you may try if you and your doctor determine that they could be appropriate.

1) Reducing the Intake of Certain Drugs

Note: By writing this section, we are not recommending changes in your medication schedule. We are simply providing information that is available in the scientific literature. Please discuss your medications with your doctor.

Low blood chloride levels can be caused by drugs such as:

  • Laxatives [27]
  • Diuretics [56]
  • Corticosteroids (long-term treatments) [57, 58]
  • Bicarbonates [3]

2) Treatment With Certain Drugs

Note: By writing this section, we are not recommending these drugs. We are simply providing information that is available in the scientific literature. Please discuss your medications with your doctor.

Low blood chloride levels and metabolic alkalosis can be treated with the following drugs:

  • Carbonic anhydrase blockers [59]
  • Diuretics [60]
  • Corticosteroids (short-term treatments) [2]
  • Arginine hydrochloride [61]
  • Ammonium chloride [62]
  • Lysine chloride [39]
  • Potassium chloride [63]

3) Eating Chloride-Rich Foods

Chloride is normally consumed as salt (60% chloride) or salt-containing foods. Additional foods with relatively high chloride contents include [64, 65]:

  • Stock cubes (16%)
  • Olives in brine (3%)
  • Bacon (2.9%)
  • Prawns (2.5%)
  • Salami (2.5%)
  • Blue cheese (2.3%)
  • Butter (1.3%)
  • Bread (0.9%)

4) Fluid Therapy

Chloride electrolyte losses can be replaced through infusion with 0.9% sodium chloride solution [66].

High Chloride (Hyperchloremia)

The conditions we discuss here are commonly associated with high chloride, but this single symptom is not enough for a diagnosis. Work with your doctor to discover what underlying condition might be causing high chloride levels and to develop an appropriate plan to improve your health.

Symptoms of Hyperchloremia

Long-term or severe hyperchloremia can have the following symptoms from dehydration and metabolic acidosis (low blood pH) [67, 68]:

  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Apathy
  • Thirst
  • Muscle cramps
  • Irregular heart rate
  • Confusion
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Seizures
  • Breathing problems
  • Fever
  • Sweating

Causes of High Chloride Levels

High blood chloride can be caused by:

  • Dehydration [5, 69]
  • Conditions that can cause fluid loss, such as fever or diarrhea [69, 70]
  • Too much stress, which causes high cortisol levels (adrenal hyperfunction) [71]
  • Parathyroid hyperfunction (hyperparathyroidism) [72, 69, 73]
  • Kidney disease [5, 74]
  • Metabolic acidosis [5, 69]
  • Hyperventilation causing respiratory alkalosis [5, 69]
  • Diabetes insipidus (a rare condition where the body produces a large amount of urine and one often feels thirsty) [69]
  • Bromide intoxication [69]
  • Drugs such as aspirin [75]

1) Dehydration

Dehydration increases the concentration of chloride in the body by decreasing the amount of water. In these conditions, the kidneys reduce urine production to preserve more water [76].

Dehydration can be caused by [5]:

  • Insufficient water intake
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • High fever
  • Heat exposure
  • Intense exercise
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Some medications (e.g., diuretics)
  • Production of large amounts of diluted urine (diabetes insipidus)
  • Increased urine production as a result of high salt intake

2) Excessive Salt Intake

Excessive salt intake (salty food, infusion of 0.9% salt solution during patient resuscitation, or unintentionally swallowing salty water) exceeds the capacity of the kidneys to excrete sodium and chloride, and increases water loss from urination and diarrhea. This leads to a buildup of both electrolytes [77, 5, 78].

3) Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis (low blood pH) occurs when the body produces excessive acids or insufficient bicarbonate. This loss of bicarbonate increases the concentration of chloride to maintain negative charges in the blood [79, 80].

Alternatively, some forms of diarrhea cause the excretion of bicarbonate, which increases chloride retention [81].

Chloride buildup linked to metabolic acidosis also occurs in a condition in which the kidneys fail to absorb bicarbonate (proximal kidney tubular acidosis) or in patients suffering from chronic kidney failure [82, 83].

Blockers of the enzyme that transforms carbon dioxide into bicarbonate (carbonic anhydrase II) also promote chloride buildup [84].

Excessive exposure to certain organic acids (e.g., toluene) can also cause high chloride [85].

4) Electrolyte Imbalances

Positive and negative charges in the blood must be balanced to remain electrically neutral. Conditions promoting the increased buildup of positive electrolytes such as sodium and potassium in the blood will lead to the excessive accumulation of chloride [11].

Consequences of High Chloride Levels

1) Kidney Function

Several studies found a link between high blood chloride levels and increased incidence of kidney injury:

  • A meta-analysis of 21 studies and over 6,000 critically ill people [86]
  • Three observational studies and a clinical trial on over 3,500 critically ill people [87, 74, 88, 89]
  • Two observational studies and a clinical trial on over 32,000 people undergoing surgery [90, 91, 92]
  • A case series on 79 children with diabetic ketoacidosis [93]
  • An observational study on over 200 people with septic shock [94]
  • An observational study on over 1200 people with bleeding in the membrane area of the brain (subarachnoid space) [95]

However, this relationship was not seen in other studies:

  • A retrospective analysis of 95 people with septic shock [96]
  • A retrospective analysis of almost 300 people undergoing heart surgery [97]
  • Two observational studies on almost 1,500 people undergoing surgery [98, 99]
  • An observational study and a clinical trial on over 3,000 critically ill people [100, 101]

In an observational study on over 200 patients who underwent kidney transplantation, no association could be found between high blood chloride levels in the donor and the incidence of acute kidney injury in the recipient [102].

Infusion of 0.9% salt solution reduced blood flow in the kidneys as a result of high blood chloride levels in a clinical trial on 12 healthy volunteers [103].

2) Death Rate

A relationship between high blood chloride levels and increased death rate of critically ill patients has been demonstrated in these studies:

  • An observational study on almost 2,000 people with septic shock [104]
  • Three observational studies on over 110,000 adults with systemic inflammatory syndrome and almost 900 children with septic shock [105, 106, 107]
  • Two observational studies on almost 55,000 people undergoing surgery [90, 108]
  • Three observational studies on over 300 critically ill adults and children [109, 48, 110]

However, this correlation was not seen in these studies:

  • A meta-analysis of 21 studies and over 6,000 critically ill people [86]
  • A clinical trial on over 2,000 people admitted to the intensive care unit [101]
  • An observational study and a clinical trial on over 1,000 critically ill people [89, 87]
  • A clinical trial on over 400 people with septic shock [111]

3) Blood Circulation

In 2 clinical trials on over 200 people undergoing major surgery, those infused with 0.9% salt required higher volumes of a neurotransmitter (catecholamine) to increase their blood pressure and support circulation than those infused with a balanced solution [92, 112].

In a trial on 66 people undergoing aortic reconstruction surgery, the infusion with a balanced solution (Ringer’s lactate) instead of 0.9% salt reduced blood loss during the operation [113].

4) Immune System

Infusion with a balanced solution induced higher circulating levels of cytokines than with 0.9% salt solution in a clinical trial on 40 people undergoing surgery [114].

High blood chloride concentrations increased the circulating cytokine levels in a study in rats with septic shock but failed to do so in a similar experiment [115, 116].

In two cell studies, exposure to a chloride-concentrated solution reduced the activation and attachment to the inner blood vessel lining of white blood cells, suggesting that infusion with high-chloride fluids reduces the risk of septic shock [117, 118].

5) In-Hospital Complications

In a meta-analysis of 21 studies involving over 6,000 critically ill people, infusion with high-chloride fluids was associated with the requirement for longer mechanical ventilation times [86].

In two observational studies on almost 32,000 people undergoing surgery and over 3,000 with systemic inflammatory syndrome, infusion with 0.9% salt increased the incidence of infections after the operation [90, 106].

Infusion with 0.9% salt caused increased readmission rates when compared to a balanced solution in an observational study on over 3,000 people with systemic inflammatory syndrome [106].

High blood chloride levels caused by infusion with 0.9% salt increased the length of hospital stay in two observational studies on over 3,000 people with systemic inflammatory syndrome and over 22,000 undergoing surgery [106, 108].

An observational study on almost 32,000 people undergoing stomach and bowel surgery showed that those infused with 0.9% salt were more likely to require a blood transfusion [90].

Factors that Can Decrease Blood Chloride

The most important thing is to work with your doctor to treat any underlying conditions causing your high chloride levels. The additional strategies below are other things that you may try if you and your doctor determine that they could be appropriate.

1) Staying Hydrated

If high blood chloride concentration is caused by dehydration, restore water levels by drinking abundant water, infusing balanced or chloride-free electrolyte solutions, and avoiding drinking alcohol [5, 119, 120].

2) Reducing the Intake of Certain Drugs

The following medications may cause increased blood chloride levels:

  • Diuretics [56, 121]
  • Laxatives [27]
  • Corticosteroids (short-term treatments) [2]
  • Carbonic anhydrase blockers [122]

3) Treating Certain Disorders

Because they can enhance chloride (and other electrolyte) imbalances, the following disorders must be urgently resolved in patients with high blood chloride levels:

  • Diabetes [123]
  • Kidney failure [83]
  • Liver failure [124]
  • Eating disorders (if the patient is abusing laxatives) [125]

Genetics

The following genetic conditions are associated with abnormal chloride levels.

1) Gordon’s Syndrome

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), also known as Gordon’s syndrome, is a rare hereditary disease characterized by high blood chloride levels [126].

In the kidneys, the proteins WNK1 and WNK4 activate the electrolyte transporters Na+/Cl- cotransporter (NCC) and Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporters 1 and 2 (NKCC1 and NKCC2), thus causing the increased intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium. Additionally, the proteins KLHL3 and CUL3 form a complex that binds to WNK4 and breaks it down, thus decreasing the absorption of these electrolytes. Mutations in all these proteins can cause Gordon’s syndrome [127, 128, 129, 130].

2) Bartter’s Syndrome

Bartter’s syndrome is a rare inherited defect of the kidney cells in the part of the kidney that reabsorbs electrolytes (loop of Henle) and is characterized by [131]:

  • Potassium wasting
  • Low blood chloride levels
  • Metabolic alkalosis (high blood pH)
  • High blood renin levels
  • High aldosterone secretion
  • Normal blood pressure
  • High urine prostaglandin levels
  • Frequent need to drink and urinate

The syndrome is caused by mutations in the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 2 (NKCC2), as well as in the following related proteins [132]:

  • ROMK (a protein that moves potassium out of the cells)
  • ClC-Kb (a protein that moves chloride out of the cells)
  • CaSR (a protein that detects calcium levels and uses them as a signal to activate electrolyte transporters)

3) Gitelman’s Syndrome

Gitelman’s syndrome is a hereditary disease with similar symptoms to Bartter’s (metabolic alkalosis with low potassium, low chloride, high renin, and high aldosterone levels in the blood), but due to defects in the kidney cells of a different region (distal convoluted tubule). The condition is caused by mutations in the Na+/Cl- cotransporter (NCCT) [133, 134].

4) Cystic Tissue Scarring

Cystic tissue scarring is a hereditary disorder characterized by the following symptoms [135]:

  • High salt concentration in sweat
  • Mucus buildup
  • Frequent lung diseases
  • Damage in the airways
  • Frequent coughing
  • Pancreatic failure
  • Development of diabetes
  • Low bone mineral density
  • Kidney failure
  • Inability to grow and gain weight (in children)
  • Blood clotting disorders

Regarding electrolyte balance, cystic tissue scarring causes low blood levels of chloride, sodium, and potassium, and high levels of bicarbonate [36].

5) Addison’s Disease

Addison’s disease is a rare hereditary disorder in which the glands above the kidneys are defective and produce low levels of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. The main symptoms of this disorder are [136]:

  • Generalized weakness and tiredness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Craving for salt
  • Darkening of skin areas
  • Low blood pressure
  • Low blood levels of sodium and chloride
  • High blood levels of potassium

Addison’s disease is due to mutations in:

  • AIRE (a gene causing autoimmune diseases in several organs) [137]
  • ABCD1 (a protein that transports fatty acids) [138]
  • DAX-1 (a protein that ensures the correct development of the kidneys and glands above them) [139].
  • ALADIN (a protein of the nuclear envelope) [140]

6) Congenital Chloride Diarrhea

Congenital chloride diarrhea is a rare genetic disease characterized by the production of watery diarrhea with high chloride concentration. It causes dehydration, metabolic alkalosis, and low levels of blood chloride, sodium, and potassium. The condition is due to defects in the bowel chloride and bicarbonate transporter SLC26A3 [141, 142].

7) Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis

This syndrome is characterized by reduced water elimination, continued production or action of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and low blood sodium and chloride levels [143].

The disease is caused by activating mutations in the vasopressin receptor AVPR2, which leads to the excessive accumulation of water [144].

Effect of Drugs on Chloride Levels, Limitations

1) Carbonic Anhydrase Blockers

Carbonic anhydrase II transforms carbon dioxide into bicarbonate. Blocking this enzyme increases chloride accumulation to compensate for the reduction of negative electrolytes. The main blockers are [145]:

  • Acetazolamide (used for glaucoma, epilepsy, pressure around the brain, and altitude sickness)
  • Methazolamide (used for glaucoma and pressure in the eyes)
  • Ethoxzolamide (used for glaucoma, ulcers in the bowel, and as a diuretic)
  • Dichlorphenamide (used for glaucoma and as a diuretic)
  • Dorzolamide (used for glaucoma and pressure in the eyes)
  • Brinzolamide (used for glaucoma and pressure in the eyes)
  • Zonisamide (used for epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease)

Some inhibitors of the enzymes that produce prostaglandins during inflammation also inhibit carbonic anhydrase II. Among them, the main ones are [84]:

  • Celecoxib (arthritis and menstruation and acute pain)
  • Valdecoxib (arthritis and menstruation pain)
  • Rofecoxib (arthritis and menstruation pain)

2) Diuretics

Loop diuretics are drugs acting on a certain region of kidney cells (loop of Henle), where they block the Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter. As a result, they reduce the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride in the kidneys. The main ones are [146]:

  • Furosemide
  • Bumetanide
  • Ethacrynic acid
  • Torsemide

Thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics increase water elimination by blocking the Na+/Cl- cotransporter, which prevents the absorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys. The most common ones are [147, 148]:

  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Bendroflumethiazide
  • Metolazone
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Clopamide
  • Xipamide

Potassium-sparing diuretics are drugs that increase the elimination of water, sodium, and chloride through the kidneys without causing potassium losses. The main ones are [149]:

  • Aldosterone blockers like spironolactone and eplerenone: they prevent the binding of aldosterone (a hormone triggering the production of electrolyte transporters) to its receptor [150].
  • Sodium channel blockers like amiloride and triamterene: they directly block sodium absorption channels, thus causing a reduced intake of sodium and chloride [151].

3) Corticosteroids

Aldosterone is a hormone that promotes sodium and chloride absorption. Corticosteroid drugs such as cortisone and hydrocortisone bind to the aldosterone receptor and also activate the absorption of these electrolytes [152, 2].

However, the long-term use of corticosteroid drugs causes a condition called Cushing’s syndrome in which the glands above the kidneys are damaged and the production of aldosterone and other corticosteroid hormones stops. This causes the loss of sodium and chloride [57, 58].

4) Laxatives

The laxative lubiprostone turns on the chloride channel ClC-2, which secretes chloride to induce the entry of sodium and water into the bowel. Similarly, an herbal laxative (anthraquinone) turns on the chloride secretion channel CFTR [153, 154].

Limitations and Caveats

Although the studies were mainly human studies, a large number of them were retrospective cohort studies. Because these studies look at existing data, the data may be inaccurate, incomplete, or inconsistently measured. Thus, most of the data collected is only correlational (shows a relationship between the factors) and not causal (determines a cause and effect) [155].

About the Author

Carlos Tello

Carlos Tello

PhD (Molecular Biology)
Carlos received his PhD and MS from the Universidad de Sevilla.
Carlos spent 9 years in the laboratory investigating mineral transport in plants. He then started working as a freelancer, mainly in science writing, editing, and consulting. Carlos is passionate about learning the mechanisms behind biological processes and communicating science to both academic and non-academic audiences. He strongly believes that scientific literacy is crucial to maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid falling for scams.

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