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Tulsi (or holy basil) is particularly known for its ability to help the body deal with stress. However, it’s not known as the “Queen of Herbs” for only that! Read on to find out the amazing benefits of including tulsi as a regular part of your healthy lifestyle.

Introduction to Tulsi

Tulsi or holy basil (Ocimum sanctum or Ocimum sanctum Linn) is an important herb in Ayurvedic medicine (the traditional medicine of India). It is especially known as an adaptagen, an herb that supports the body’s stress response (whether physical, chemical, metabolic, or psychological) (R).

It is known as the “Queen of Herbs” and in Sanskrit means ‘the incomparable one.’ In fact, Hinduism links the tulsi plant to the figure of a goddess (R).

Tulsi is believed to promote long life and is taken as an elixir to promote balance and resilience to all of life’s challenges (R).

Traditional indications for this herb include common colds, bronchitis, diarrhea, stomach disorders, headaches, inflammation, arthritis, heart disease, skin diseases, eye diseases, various forms of poisoning, insect bites, and malaria. (R).

Tulsi is from the Lamiaceae (mint) family of herbs and alternatively may be called Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn, Tulasi, or Holy Basil (a direct translation from the Latin, Ocimum sanctum) (R).

Different parts of the herb have been used medicinally, including the leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds, and even whole plant (R).

It may be taken as an herbal tea, dried powder, or fresh leaf used in cooking traditional dishes (R).

Health Benefits of Tulsi (Holy Basil)

1) Tulsi Lowers Stress and Anxiety

Tulsi is a calming herb that produces relaxation effects. However, on its own tulsi does not induce drowsiness or sleep.

Tulsi prevented stress-induced changes in blood levels of corticosterone (in rats; comparable to cortisol levels in humans) (R).

Tulsi constituents ocimarin and the ocimumosides A and B show antistress activity including normalizing blood sugar levels and cortisol levels at a dosage 40mg/kg (in rats) (R).

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 158 patients ages 18-65, OciBest, the whole plant extract of tulsi, was found to be 1.6 times or 39 percent more effective in the management of stress symptoms than the placebo over a six-week time period (R).

In a study of 35 subjects with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, taking tulsi (500 mg) with two meals daily reduced anxiety and feelings of depression over a two-month period (R).

An alcohol extract of tulsi root (400 mg/kg) is a CNS stimulant or an anti-stress agent in mice. It was as effective as the antidepressant desipramine, commonly sold as Norpramin (R).

2) Tulsi Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Tulsi essential oil had strong anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of granulomatous disease (R).

COX-2 is a molecule commonly targeted by anti-inflammatory medications. Tulsi is a natural COX-2 inhibitor (R).

A study on tulsi extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in human cells, validating its traditional use in treating cardiovascular disease (R).

A purified extract of the fresh leaves and stems of tulsi yielded appreciable amounts of eugenol, as well as the following compounds: cirsilineol, cirsimaritin, isothymusin, isothymonin, apigenin, and rosmarinic acid (R).

The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was comparable to ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin at 10-, 10-, and 1000-microM concentrations, respectively (R).

3) Tulsi Improves Cognitive Function

In rats, tulsi promotes memory and attention by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, thus increasing acetylcholine levels (R).

Tulsi inhibits MMP9 in a cell study, suggesting that it may help to restore Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity (R).

A water extract of dried tulsi protected against drug- and aging- induced memory problems in mice, indicating that tulsi may be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia (R).

Tulsi extract may prevent convulsions via its effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) according to animal studies (R, R2).

4) Tulsi Helps Protect the Heart

An alcohol extract of tulsi leaves reduced heart tissue inflammation in a mouse model of a heart attack (myocardial infarction), possibly due to its high phenol content (R).

Tulsi extract may prevent cardiovascular disease by inhibiting mmyeloperoxidase (MPO), an oxidative enzyme that may cause plaque accumulation in the arteries (known as atherosclerosis) (R).

A study on tulsi extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in human cells, validating its traditional use in treating cardiovascular disease (R).

Tulsi leaf essential oil was shown to lower cholesterol and protect the heart via its antioxidant effects (in rat studies) (R).

In a study of rabbits, tulsi leaf significantly decreased blood levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol (formerly called triglycerides), and LDL cholesterol with a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (R).

5) Tulsi Addresses High Blood Pressure

Because tulsi is rich in potassium (18,991 µg/g), according to a trace element study, it may be useful for balancing high blood pressure (R).

The fatty oil from tulsi seeds has blood pressure-lowering (hypotensive) effects (R).

The tulsi extract/fractions eugenol and tulsi oil inhibit ACE (an enzyme that increases blood pressure) in a concentration-dependent manner and therefore may help reduce blood pressure (R).

6) Tulsi Helps Diabetes and Blood Sugar Imbalance

In Type 2 diabetes patients (DB-RCT), tulsi lowered fasting blood sugar levels by 17.6% and post-meal blood sugar levels by 7.3% (R).

A water-based extract of tulsi decreased blood sugar levels in a study of diabetic rats (R).

7) Tulsi Protects the Liver

An alcohol extract of tulsi leaf at 200 mg/kg body weight per day was shown to protect the liver from toxin-induced damage (in rats) (R).

The addition of milk thistle (50 mg/kg) to tulsi (100 mg/kg) was shown to have a synergistic effect in liver protection (R).

8) Tulsi Protects Against and Heals Stomach Ulcers

Tulsi decreases problematic acid-pepsin secretion, and breakdown of cells that line the stomach. In addition, tulsi increases the protective mucus in the stomach (R).

In rats, tulsi extract healed stomach ulcers after 5 and 10 days’ treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg (R).

An alcohol extract of tulsi leaves (eugenol content 5%) at a dose of 50-200 mg/kg, twice daily for five days orally, was dose-dependently protective against some types of stomach ulcers (alcohol-induced, but not aspirin-induced) (R).

In a study of rats and guinea pigs, tulsi protected against a variety of ulcer-inducers, including aspirin, alcohol, and histamine (R).

9) Tulsi Works As an Antioxidant

Strong antioxidant capacity was measured from tulsi essential oil and was particularly correlated with its eugenol content (R).

Tulsi leaf powder was shown to combat cadmium-produced free radicals, and restored liver and kidney functions in a study of broiler chickens (R).

An extract of tulsi increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in rats (R).

10) Tulsi May Help Reduce Pain

Animal studies (mice) showed an alcoholic leaf extract of tulsi reduced signs of pain, indicating effectiveness as an analgesic (R).

Another rat study showed that for both an alcohol extract of tulsi and an aqueous suspension of tulsi (500 mg/kg) were as effective as 300 mg of the NSAID, sodium salicylate (R).

11) Tulsi Increases Immune Function (Both Th1 and Th2)

Daily ingestion of 300 mg capsules of tulsi leaf extract significantly increased IFN-y, IL-4, and T-helper cells, and natural killer cell activity — all important components of the immune system — after four weeks of intervention in 24 healthy volunteers (R).

Tulsi increases both the Th1 and Th2 immune responses (R).

12-17) Tulsi Is Anti-Cancer

A review study of tulsi’s anti-cancer activity found effectiveness against skin cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and preventative effects against liver cancer, stomach cancer, and oral cancer (R).

Skin Cancer

An alcohol extract of tulsi raises levels of skin glutathione (R).

In addition, a number of phytochemicals in tulsi, including eugenol, apigenin, luteolin, and rosmarinic acid, are also protective against chemical- or UV- induced inflammation, damage, and tumor growth (R).

In mice, an alcoholic extract of tulsi leaves applied topically was protective against a chemically-induced skin cancer (R).

Pre-treatment with an alcoholic extract of tulsi leaves decreased the number of tumors induced by a range of skin carcinogens in a mouse model of skin cancer (R).

In another study, a water-alcohol extract of tulsi reduced tumor size and increased survival rates of mice with melanoma (R).

Tulsi seed oil was also protective against the development of skin cancer and improved survival rates of mice with tumors (R).

Lung Cancer

In a review study, a tulsi alcohol extract induced cell death in human lung cancer cells and suppressed the growth of lung cancer cells in mice (R).

In mice, tulsi extracts reduced MMP9 activity, thus reducing the formation of tumors when tumor cells were injected into the animals. (R).

Tulsi extract reduced the formation of tumors in mice injected with lung cancer cells (R).

Phytochemicals contained in tulsi, including carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin are able to inhibit the growth of lung cancer (R).

Breast Cancer

Cell studies have shown that tulsi leaf extract prevented the spread of breast cancer and prevented an increase in the levels of COX-2/inflammation (R).

In cell-based studies, Eugenol (a primary constituent of tulsi), luteolin, and apigenin killed human breast cancer cells (RR2).

Carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid were shown to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells (R).

Liver Cancer

Tulsi (leaf alcohol extract) protected liver cells from DNA damage and increased antioxidant levels in response to cancer-causing chemicals and drug exposures (RR2).

In rats, tulsi significantly prevented chemical-induced liver cancer (R).

Ursolic acid, which is found in tulsi, prevented toxin-induced liver cancer in rats by decreasing oxidative stress (R).

Additional anti-cancer effects were also observed in liver cells from the tulsi phytochemicals apigenin, luteolin, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid (R).

Studies have also shown that myrtenal, a monoterpene present in tulsi, was effective in preventing toxin-induced liver cancer in rats (R, R2).

Stomach Cancer

Studies have shown that including tulsi leaves in the diet prevented chemically-induced stomach cancer in mice (R).

An alcohol-based 70% tulsi leaf extract reduced chemical-induced stomach cancer in rats (R).

In an animal study (rats), tulsi selectively induced cell death in chemical-induced stomach cancer, but not in the normal stomach tissue (R).

Eugenol was effective against chemically-induced stomach tumors in mice (R) and in rats (RR2, R3).

Cell culture studies have shown that phytochemicals in tulsi, luteolin, β-sitosterol, ursolic acid, and apigenin also inhibit growth and kill stomach cancers (R).

Oral Cancer

In a study of 41 patients in India (aged 17-56 years), tulsi combined with turmeric was shown to be highly potent against Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF), which if not treated, can progress to oral cancer (R).

In hamsters, water extract of tulsi taken by mouth had the greatest anticancer activity against papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas (R).

In a cell study, tulsi water extract was shown to be highly effective against oral cancer cells (R).

18) Tulsi Protects Against Radiation

Two flavonoids in tulsi, orientin (derivative of luteolin) and vicenin (an apigenin), have been shown to protect human blood cells from radiation-induced DNA damage (R).

19) Tulsi Accelerates Bone Healing

A tulsi extract significantly reduced the healing time after a jaw fracture. Tulsi may increase calcium uptake, bone calcification, or enzymes involved in bone remodeling, such as alkaline phosphatase (R).

20) Tulsi Is Anti-Bacterial

Tulsi essential oil showed strong antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus, enterococcus, and pseudomonas bacteria species (R).

A fatty (not essential) oil of tulsi also showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and had the greatest effectiveness against the S. aureus (R).

A water extract of tulsi (60 mg/kg) was more effective than an alcohol-based extract against Klebsiella, E. coli, Proteus, S. aureus and Candida albicans. However, the alcohol-based extract showed better inhibition of Vibrio cholerae (the bacteria that causes cholera) (R).

In a cow model of mastitis, tulsi extract injected into the breast tissue lowered the total bacterial count and enhanced the immune system (R).

Tulsi extract was as effective as penicillin and ciprofloxacin against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the cause of the sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea (R).

21) Tulsi Is Anti-Viral

In a two-week randomized controlled study, young adult volunteers were provided with nutrition bars fortified with 1 gram of an alcohol-based tulsi leaf extract. The intervention group had an improved immune response to viral infection as indicated by a reduced load of human herpesvirus 6 in saliva (R).

Apigenin, a compound derived from tulsi, has shown effectiveness against H1N1 and Swine Flu (R).

An alcohol- or solvent-based extract of tulsi inhibited genital herpes (Herpes Simplex Virus type 2) in a cell-based study (R).

An aqueous extract of tulsi leaves prevented the cell damage and the growth of New Castle Disease (NCD) virus in chickens (R).

22) Tulsi Helps Clear Candida Overgrowth

Tulsi inhibits the growth of Candida albicans (R, R2).

This may in part be due to its constituent, eugenol, which on its own has been found to inhibit candida (R).

23) Tulsi Disrupts Biofilms and Works as a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor

Breaking down biofilms and disrupting quorum sensing is important for eradicating bacterial infections.

Eugenol, a compound found in tulsi, is a natural biofilm disruptor (R, R2, R3).

Rosmarinic acid, another compound found in tulsi, also disrupts biofilms, but only in higher concentrations (in mouse intestinal cells) (R).

Tulsi has the ability to work as a quorum sensing inhibitor (in cell studies) (R).

24) Tulsi Boosts Testosterone

In a rabbit study, treatment with 2 g/day of fresh tulsi leaves significantly increased testosterone levels over a 30 day period (R).

25) Tulsi Helps Those with Histamine Intolerance

The fatty oil from tulsi seeds has antihistamine effects (R).

Tulsi seed oil blocks histamine release from mast cells in rats (R, R2).

26) Tulsi Protects Against Cataracts

In rats, 5 and 10 mg/kg of tulsi extract reduced the incidence of cataracts by 20% and 60% respectively, in part by raising levels of antioxidant enzymes (R).

Tulsi was shown to possess significant anticataract activity in rat lenses, which may be due to its inhibition of aldose reductase — an enzyme that caused cataracts in diabetes (R).

27) Tulsi Protects Against Graying Hair

Tulsi increases catalase, the enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide, and therefore may keep hair from graying (R, R2).

Tulsi Gene Interactions

Genes that have a direct role in the buildup of plaque in the arteries (atherosclerosis) include LDRL, LxRalpha, PPARs, and CD-36, because these genes control fatty acid metabolism, the production of substances that are toxic to cells, and the activities of cells in the walls of the arteries (R).

Polyphenols in tulsi were found to have the inherent ability to inhibit the cellular production (transcription) from these genes (R).

The authors of the study concluded, “on the basis of these results, we propose for the first time that HPLC purified polyphenolic fraction IV of tulsi may have a profound antiatherogenic effect” (R).

Tulsi Nutrition

Protein: 30 Kcal, 4.2 g

Fat: 0.5 g

Carbohydrate: 2.3 g

Vitamins: vitamin C (25 mg vitamin C per 100 g) and vitamin A

Minerals: Calcium: 25 mg; Phosphorus 287 mg; Iron: 15.1 mg

Phytonutrients: Chlorophyll and many other phytonutrients. (R)

Tulsi Dosage

500 mg of tulsi leaf extract taken twice daily is most often recommended for neurological and adaptogenic effects based on the scientific literature.

Since most other studies are in rats at dosages of 100-200 mg/kg for general health or 500 mg/kg for raising testosterone, for humans that translates into an estimated dosage of:

General Health:

150lb person: 1,100 – 2,200 mg

200lb person:1,500 – 2,900 mg

250lb person: 1,800 – 3,600 mg

Raising Testosterone:

150lb person: 5,500 mg

200lb person:7,300 mg

250lb person: 9,100 mg

Tulsi Interactions

Taking tulsi with Valium may increase its effects on the immune system. Co-administration of diazepam (1 mg/kg, sc), a benzodiazepine, with tulsi seed oil (1 ml/kg, ip) enhanced the effect of the tulsi on the immune system (in rats) (R).

Flumazenil (5 mg/kg), an antidote to benzodiazepines (central benzodiazepine receptor antagonist), inhibited the immune system enhancement of tulsi seed oil (in rats) (R).

Tulsi Side Effects

Studies using rats have not shown any toxicity at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg/day of alcohol/aqueous extract over 28 days) (R).

However, toxicity has been reported for Tulsi essential oil (about 70% eugenol) at 42.5 ml/kg body weight (R, R2).

Another study using a standardized extract of Ocimum sanctum (OciBest™) showed no destructive effect on genes (R).

However, two animal studies have shown a possible anti-fertility effect, negatively impacting sperm — which was reversible (R, R2).

Tulsi Contraindications

The safety of taking tulsi during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not yet been studied, and so taking tulsi during those times is best avoided until more is known (R).

Tulsi may not be good for those with thyroid disease. An animal study found that tulsi at the dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for 15 days significantly decreased serum T4 concentration; however, no marked changes were observed in serum T3 level, T3/T4 ratio and in the concentration of serum cholesterol. (R).

Tulsi Reviews

Reviewer2960963: “Tulsi is supposed to be anti-inflammatory, and I believe it. My back pain has completely gone away after drinking 1-2 cups a day for the past few weeks.”

Reviewer 5562111311136571916: “I take one capsule, twice daily. My doctor had prescribed a diuretic because I have high blood pressure that was getting worse. However, the diuretic she prescribed had so many side effects and I seemed to suffer from all of them. Holy basil does the job without ANY side effects — and I feel much better with less bloating, swelling — and the general health benefits of holy basil are a plus.”

Reviewer2039313:Holy basil helps prevent catching viruses. This works well!”

Reviewer1588146: “I love this for a sleep aid! OTC drugs cause horrible nightmares, grogginess etc. Holy basil just allows me to sleep, it is the epitome of “power nap,” even if my sleep gets interrupted, the sleep I do get is so refreshing! I alternate sometimes with Ashwagandha (that seems more of a lightweight), and Rhodiola during the day – these adaptogens do as they are reported to. My ability to deal with stress is so much improved it’s incredible!”

Technical: Constituents of Tulsi (Holy Basil)

Active compounds in whole tulsi leaves include (R, R2):

  • Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene) is largely responsible for the therapeutic effects of the herb
  • Oleanolic acid
  • Ursolic acid
  • Rosmarinic acid
  • Carvacrol
  • β-caryophyllene (R)

Tulsi essential oil constituents contain phenylpropanoids, including (RR2):

  • Eugenol (67.4% – 72.8%)
  • β-elemene (11.0% – 10.9%)
  • β-caryophyllene (7.3% – 8.4%)
  • Germacrene D (2.4% – 2.2%)
  • Linalool (54.95%)
  • Methylchavikol (methyl carvicol – also called Estragol) (11.98%)
  • Methylcinnamat (7.24%)
  • Linolen (0.14%) (R)
  • Urosolic acid
  • Carvacrol
  • Linlimatrol

Tulsi seed oil (not essential oil) has fatty acids and sitosterol; in addition, the seed mucilage contains trace levels of sugars (xylose and polysaccharides) (R).

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

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