Potential of Brewer's & Nutritional Yeast as a Probiotic
S. cerevisiae, also known as Brewer’s or Baker’s yeast, has great nutritional properties. It also has proven probiotic properties – it’s good for the skin and wound healing and combats various infections.
What is Saccharomyces cerevisiae?
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast commonly referred to as brewer or baker’s yeast. This microorganism has been instrumental to winemaking, baking, and brewing since ancient times.
S. cerevisiae is a veterinary probiotic widely used in animal nutrition (R). Although several S. cerevisiae strains have proven probiotic potential in humans, only the related S. boulardii is currently licensed for use as a human probiotic (R).
The commercial product known as “nutritional yeast” contains the inactivated S. cerevisiae. This product is high in protein, fiber, and B vitamins, especially folic acid.
Health Benefits of S. cerevisiae
1) S. cerevisiae Produces Folate
S. cerevisiae was shown to increase the folate contents of rye flour-water mixtures (R).
2) S. cerevisiae Degrades Phytate
Phytic acid (phytate) is found in many cereal grains, oilseeds, legumes, flours, and brans. It forms insoluble complexes with minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium, and lowers their bioavailability. Humans lack the enzymes for phytate complex degradation (R).
3) S. cerevisiae Degrades Mycotoxins
Agricultural products, food and animal feeds can be contaminated by mycotoxins, specific toxins produced by fungi. These toxins can lead to various diseases in humans and livestock.
Studies report that S. cerevisiae fermentation can degrade mycotoxins (R).
Furthermore, S. cerevisiae also possesses the ability to bind mycotoxins. S. cerevisiae improved weight gain and reduced genotoxicity of aflatoxin in mice fed with contaminated corn (R).
4) S. cerevisiae is Beneficial for the GI Tract
S. cerevisiae strengthens epithelial barrier function (R).
Oral treatment with viable or heat-killed S. cerevisiae strain prevents bacterial translocation, protects intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates immunity in mice with intestinal obstruction (R).
S. cerevisiae May be Beneficial in Cancer Patients with Mucositis
Gastrointestinal mucositis is a major and serious side effect of cancer therapy. S. cerevisiae reduces oxidative stress, prevents weight loss and intestinal lesions, and maintains the integrity of the mucosal barrier in mice with mucositis (R).
S. cerevisiae May Ameliorate IBS
S. cerevisiae May Ameliorate IBD
S. cerevisiae improved symptoms in mice with acute ulcerative colitis (R).
S. cerevisiae reduced inflammation, restored barrier function, and inhibited colitis in mice (R).
5) S. cerevisiae Combats Infections
Treatment with S. cerevisiae decreases proinflammatory cytokines, inhibits weight loss and increases survival rate in mice with typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium) (R).
S. cerevisiae beta-glucan reduces microscopic lung lesions and virus replication rate in pigs with pneumonia caused by the swine influenza virus (SIV) (R).
S. cerevisiae supplementation increased antibody titers and leucocyte counts and resulted in a decline in parasitemia in Trypanosoma brucei infected rats (R).
S. cerevisiae, when administered orally, colonizes the bowel of healthy volunteers and can potentially replace resident Candida species (R).
6) S. cerevisiae May be Beneficial for Dental Health
S. cerevisiae, as monotherapy or as an adjuvant, accelerated the tissue-repair process and ameliorated periodontitis in rats (R).
7) S. cerevisiae is Good for the Skin
8) S. cerevisiae Promotes Wound Healing
Topical treatment with a water-insoluble glucan from S. cerevisiae enhanced venous ulcer healing in humans. In a patient who had an ulcer that would not heal for over 15 years, this treatment caused a 67.8% decrease in the area of the ulcer (R).
9) S. cerevisiae is Beneficial in Pregnancy
Preeclampsia is associated with impaired antioxidant defense that results in maternofetal complications. S. cerevisiae scavenged nitric oxide radicals and decreased oxidative stress in red blood cells and alleviates stress status in the preeclamptic fetus (R).
- S. cerevisiae can favor a Th1 response (R).
- S. cerevisiae increases IFN-γ (R, R), IL-5 (R), IL-10 (R, R, R) and IL-12 (R).
- S. cerevisiae both increases (R) and decreases (R) TNF-α.
- S. cerevisiae both increases (R) and decreases IL-6 (R, R, R, R).
- S. cerevisiae decreases IL-1α (R), IL-1β (R, R), IL-8 (R, R), CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL10 (R) and the neutrophil chemokine KC (R).
- S. cerevisiae increases IgA (R, R), NO (R) and PPAR-γ (R).
Anti-S. cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been found in many autoimmune diseases in which increased intestinal permeability occurs, including type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, and others (R, R, R). High ASCA were also found in obesity (R).