Evidence Based This post has 38 references
9

Potential Benefits of Chaga Mushroom + Side Effects

Written by Carlos Tello, PhD (Molecular Biology) | Last updated:
Jonathan Ritter
Puya Yazdi
Medically reviewed by
Jonathan Ritter, PharmD, PhD (Pharmacology), Puya Yazdi, MD | Written by Carlos Tello, PhD (Molecular Biology) | Last updated:

SelfHacked has the strictest sourcing guidelines in the health industry and we almost exclusively link to medically peer-reviewed studies, usually on PubMed. We believe that the most accurate information is found directly in the scientific source.

We are dedicated to providing the most scientifically valid, unbiased, and comprehensive information on any given topic.

Our team comprises of trained MDs, PhDs, pharmacists, qualified scientists, and certified health and wellness specialists.

All of our content is written by scientists and people with a strong science background.

Our science team is put through the strictest vetting process in the health industry and we often reject applicants who have written articles for many of the largest health websites that are deemed trustworthy. Our science team must pass long technical science tests, difficult logical reasoning and reading comprehension tests. They are continually monitored by our internal peer-review process and if we see anyone making material science errors, we don't let them write for us again.

Our goal is to not have a single piece of inaccurate information on this website. If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please leave a comment or contact us at [email protected]

Note that each number in parentheses [1, 2, 3, etc.] is a clickable link to peer-reviewed scientific studies. A plus sign next to the number “[1+, 2+, etc...]” means that the information is found within the full scientific study rather than the abstract.

//

Preliminary research in animals and cells suggests that chaga mushroom may boost the immune system, fight inflammation, protect cells from free radicals, and reduce the symptoms of diabetes. Read below to learn more about these and other potential benefits of Chaga.

What Is Chaga Mushroom?

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is a fungus found primarily on birch trees that has been used in the folk medicine of Russia, Japan, and Europe [1, 2].

Chaga mushroom can be eaten as a food and is also made into tea, syrup, bath agents, and extracts [3].

Traditional uses for this mushroom include improving the immune response and treating stomach issues. However, none of them has been proven in clinical trials and only animal and cell-based research have been conducted [1].

Health Benefits of Chaga Mushroom

Animal and Cell Research (Lack of Evidence)

No clinical evidence supports the use of chaga mushroom for any of the conditions listed in this section. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts. However, the studies should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit.

Antioxidant

Chaga has the strongest antioxidant activity when compared against three other common antioxidant mushrooms [4].

In human lymphocytes, chaga extract reduced DNA damage caused by hydrogen peroxide by over 40% [2].

A compound isolated from chaga protected brain cells from Parkinson’s disease by activating an antioxidant pathway [5].

In mice, chaga extract’s antioxidant activity protected against the effects of chronic inflammation of the pancreas [6].

In test tubes, several phenolic compounds found in chaga mushrooms scavenged free radicals [7].

Cancer

http://koreascience.or.kr/article/ArticleFullRecord.jsp?cn=POCPA9_2013_v14n3_1571

Below, we will discuss some preliminary research on chaga’s potential anticancer effects. It’s still in the animal and cell stage and further clinical studies have yet to determine if this mushroom may be useful in cancer therapies.

Do not under any circumstances attempt to replace conventional cancer therapies with chaga mushroom or any other supplements. If you want to use it as a supportive measure, talk to your doctor to avoid any unexpected interactions.

Supplementing chaga extract reduced tumor size by 60% and prevented cancer from spreading in mice with lung cancer [8].

In cell-based studies, chaga extract reduced the growth of several cancer cell types, including colon, liver, lung, leukemia, cervical, and brain cancer cells, but not of healthy cells [3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13].

However, sclerotium parts of chaga appeared to have stronger cytotoxic effects against normal cells than cancer cells [14].

Compounds found in chaga may help the immune system to recognize cancer cells as harmful and mount an immune response against them [3, 9, 15].

Reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage increase the risk of cancerous mutations by damaging cellular DNA. By reducing oxidative stress, chaga may lower the risk of such mutations [16, 9].

Immunity Boost

Chaga extract increased the production of IL-6 and lymphocyte B cells in mice. In white blood cells (macrophages), it increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) and messengers (nitric oxide) [17, 18].

Compounds found in chaga helped the immune system of mice differentiate between the body’s cells and foreign cells, potentially increasing the accuracy of its response and reducing the risk of autoimmunity [15].

Chaga extract also reduced immune hypersensitivity in mice and reduced the risk of shock from severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) [19].

In mice, chaga ethanol extract reduced the levels of IL-4 and increased IFN-y levels by promoting the Th1 response while inhibiting the allergy-promoting Th2 response [20].

Infections

In animal and cell-based studies, it prevented the following viruses from infecting cells and replicating:

  • HIV [21]
  • Herpes simplex [22]
  • Epstein-Barr [23]
  • Hepatitis C [24]

Both hot water and ethanol extracts of chaga are killed bacterial and fungal cells in cell culture. Chaga extract may also help fight infections by stopping quorum sensing, which is a method that bacterial cells use to activate gene expression [1].

Note, however, that these are very preliminary results that haven’t been replicated in clinical trials and, often, even in animals. Further research is needed to verify if chaga mushroom improves or prevents infections caused by these microorganisms.

Inflammation

Chaga may reduce inflammation by blocking an over-activated immune response [19].

Its extract reduced pro-inflammatory pathways (NF-kB) and messengers (nitric oxide and PGE2) in rats and decreased the response to pain [25].

Chaga also reduced inflammation in mice with IBD by suppressing cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) and messengers (nitric oxide) [26].

In mice and cells, chaga extract lowered NF-kappaB binding activity. This may reduce inflammatory pain by blocking the effects of enzymes such as nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In fact, inhibition of COX-2 is the mechanism by which traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or aspirin, reduce pain and swelling [25, 27].

Diabetes

In diabetic mice, chaga extract significantly decreased blood glucose, insulin, and fat levels. This may help prevent both diabetes and its complications [28].

is a molecule that decreases insulin resistance by improving insulin signaling and energy metabolism [29].

In fat cells, chaga extract increased PPARγ expression. This may decrease insulin resistance, since this protein improves insulin signaling and energy metabolism [30].

Increasing PPARγ activity in fat tissues may also reduce weight gain, as seen in a study in obese rats [31].

Chaga extract may also slow carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars (alpha-glucosidase), thus reducing blood glucose spikes [32].

Oxidative stress contributes to insulin resistance and accelerates diabetic complications. Chaga’s antioxidant properties can reduce oxidative damage [28].

The anti-diabetic effects of chaga may increase if used in combination with vanadium. This was the case in a study in diabetic mice [33].

Physical Endurance

Animals studies determined that compounds in chaga may increase exercise tolerance. Mice given chaga extract were able to swim for a longer period of time. The animals treated with Chaga also had higher energy stores in the muscles and liver [34].

Chaga’s complex carbohydrates significantly reduced blood lactate levels in exercising mice. This may also help boost endurance since an accumulation of lactate in the body can cause fatigue [34].

Chaga also decreased blood urea nitrogen levels, which can contribute to fatigue [35].

Chaga extract activates PPARγ, which could help maintain energy metabolism and promote physical endurance [31].

Preventing Blood Clots

Platelet aggregation occurs when blood cells clump together and form clots. Sometimes, platelet aggregation can cause blood clots in the veins, which can eventually lead to heart attacks or strokes. Chaga extract inhibited platelet aggregation in animal studies [36].

Cognitive Function

Chaga extract reduced cognitive dysfunction in animal studies by reducing oxidative damage caused by a plant toxin (scopolamine) to the brain. The extract also restored the levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that promotes learning and memory, as efficiently as the reference drug tacrine [37].

Precautions

Remember that chaga mushroom has not been approved by the FDA for medical use due to the lack of any clinical research. However, it is available as a supplement. Regulations set manufacturing standards for supplements but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing with chaga mushroom.

Importantly, keep in mind that its safety profile is unknown because the mushroom has only been tested in animals and cells. The list of side effects below is not a definite one and you should consult your doctor about other potential side effects based on your health condition and possible drug or supplement interactions.

Since chaga may stop platelet aggregation, it should not be taken in combination with blood-thinning medications, such as aspirin and warfarin to prevent the risk of bleeding [36].

Chaga may also lower blood sugar levels. Its combination with diabetes medicine may cause blood glucose levels to fall dangerously low [28].

People with autoimmune diseases should avoid using Chaga because it can cause the immune system to become overactive.

An elderly woman had oxalate nephropathy after daily consuming chaga powder for 6 months due to its high oxalate content. Oxalate nephropathy is a condition where excess oxalate can cause kidney failure [38].

About the Author

Carlos Tello

Carlos Tello

PhD (Molecular Biology)
Carlos received his PhD and MS from the Universidad de Sevilla.
Carlos spent 9 years in the laboratory investigating mineral transport in plants. He then started working as a freelancer, mainly in science writing, editing, and consulting. Carlos is passionate about learning the mechanisms behind biological processes and communicating science to both academic and non-academic audiences. He strongly believes that scientific literacy is crucial to maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid falling for scams.

Click here to subscribe

RATE THIS ARTICLE

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars
(4 votes, average: 4.75 out of 5)
Loading...

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.