Your vagus nerve is critical to optimal health, no matter what your issues are.
- 1 Introduction to The Vagus Nerve
- 2 The Vagus Nerve and Health
- 3 Genetics and Vagal Activity
- 4 Conditions Which Vagal Nerve Activation Can Help
- 5 The Vagus Nerve and Hormones
- 6 The Vagus Nerve and the Circadian Rhythm
- 7 Acetylcholine
- 8 Measuring Your Heart Rate Variability
- 9 32 Ways to Stimulate The Vagus Nerve
- 10 1) Cold
- 11 2) Singing or Chanting
- 12 3) Yoga
- 13 4) Meditation
- 14 5) Positive Social Relationships
- 15 6) Breath Deeply and Slowly
- 16 7) Laughter
- 17 8) Prayer
- 18 9) ICES/PEMF
- 19 10) The Breathing Exerciser, and Exercises
- 20 11) Probiotics
- 21 12) Exercise
- 22 13) Massages
- 23 14) Fasting
- 24 15) Sleep or Lay on Your Right Side
- 25 16) Tai Chi
- 26 17) Gargling
- 27 18) Fish Oil – EPA and DHA
- 28 19) Oxytocin
- 29 20) Zinc
- 30 21) Tongue Depressors
- 31 22) Acupuncture
- 32 23) Serotonin
- 33 24) Chew Gum: CCK
- 34 25) GLP-1
- 35 26) Coffee Enemas
- 36 27) Coughing or Tensing the Stomach Muscles
- 37 28) Make Sure Your Thyroid Hormones/T3 Are Normal
- 38 29) MSH
- 39 30) Insulin
- 40 31) Orexin
- 41 32) Ghrelin
- 42 Others
- 43 Some Basics on How the Vagus Nerve Works (Technical)
Introduction to The Vagus Nerve
In people with fatigue, food sensitivities, anxiety, gut problems, brain fog, and depersonalization, the vagus nerve is almost always at play. These people have lower vagal tone, which means a lower ability of the vagus nerve to activate or perform its functions.
The only question is what aspect of the vagus nerve is malfunctioning and how much the vagus nerve is a problem vs. other aspects of your biology.
The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic nervous system, referred to as the rest and digest system. It’s not the only nerve in the parasympathetic system, but it’s by far the most important one because it has the most far-reaching effects.
The word vagus means “wanderer,” because it wanders all over the body to various important organs.
The vagus nerve connects to the brain, gut (intestines, stomach), heart, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, kidney, ureter, spleen, lungs, fertility organs (females), neck (including the pharynx, larynx, esophagus), ears and tongue.
The Vagus Nerve and Health
In the brain, the vagus helps control anxiety and depression.
In the gut, it increases stomach acidity, digestive juices, and gut flow. Since the vagus nerve is very important for increasing gut flow/motility, having less vagus activation will increase your IBS-C risk, which is a result of a slower flow (R).
Stimulating the vagus nerve increases the release of histamine in stomach cells, which helps with the release of stomach acid (R). So low stomach acidity is usually, in part, a vagus nerve problem. By releasing intrinsic factor, the vagus nerve is important to help you absorb B12 (R).
In the heart, it controls heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure. Vagus activation will lower the risk for heart disease and other major killers (R).
In the liver and pancreas, it helps controls glucose balance (R).
In the gallbladder, it helps release bile, which can help you get rid of toxins and break down fat.
The vagus nerve promotes general kidney function. It helps with glucose control and increases blood flow (R), which helps filtrate your blood better. Vagus activation also releases dopamine in the kidneys, which helps excrete sodium (R) – and thereby lower blood pressure.
The vagus nerve goes to the bladder (R). A side effect of vagus nerve stimulation is urinary retention (R), which may mean that less vagus stimulation can cause you to urinate frequently. Indeed, I see frequent urination among many of my clients (also due to low vasopressin, low aldosterone, and high cortisol).
In the spleen, it can reduce inflammation (R). Note that vagus activation will reduce inflammation in all target organs (by releasing acetylcholine) (R), but when it activates in the spleen it’ll probably be more systemic.
It helps control fertility and orgasms in women by connecting to the cervix, uterus, and vagina. Women can actually experience orgasms simply from the vagus nerve (R).
In the tongue, it helps control taste and saliva and in the eyes, it helps release tears (R).
A friend asked me what’s the connection between having to go to the bathroom and congestion. It’s likely the vagus nerve because it controls mucous production and also your colon flow.
Satiety and relaxation following a meal are in part caused by an activation of vagus nerve transmission to the brain in response to food intake (R).
The vagus nerve explains why a person may cough when tickled on the ear, such as when trying to remove ear wax with a cotton swab (R).
Vagus nerve stimulation helps people with tinnitus because of its connection to the ear.
The vagus nerve is important in conditions like GERD not only because it controls stomach acidity, but also because it controls the esophagus.
The vagus nerve is largely responsible for the mind-body connection since it goes to all your major organs (except your adrenals and thyroid).
It’s intimately tied to how we connect with one another — it links directly to nerves that tune our ears to human speech, coordinate eye contact and regulate emotional expressions. It influences the release of oxytocin, a hormone that is important in social bonding (R).
Vagus activity of a child can be affected by their mother. Infants had lower vagus activity with mothers who were depressed/angry/anxious during pregnancy (R).
It’s been suggested in studies that the vagus nerve is important for getting in the mental state of flow. It’s believed that the combination of sympathetic (fight-or-flight) and vagus activation creates the right environment for a flow state (R).
Genetics and Vagal Activity
Conditions Which Vagal Nerve Activation Can Help
Because the vagus nerve is associated with many different functions and brain regions, research shows positive effects of vagal stimulation for a variety of conditions, including but not limited to (R):
- Various Anxiety Disorders,
- Heart disease,
- Cancer (R),
- Bad blood circulation (R),
- Leaky gut,
- Memory and Mood disorders,
- Alcohol addiction,
- Severe mental diseases,
- Multiple sclerosis
- Chronic heart failure
The Vagus Nerve and Hormones
Insulin activates the vagus nerve in some ways through a domino of steps and leads to decreased glucose production by the liver (it activates K-ATP channels in the arcuate nucleus, decreases AgRP release, and through the vagus nerve decreases enzymes that increase blood glucose -G6P, PEPCK) (R).
The Vagus Nerve and the Circadian Rhythm
Signals from the circadian control center (SCN) are often transmitted by the vagus nerve.
For example, mucin production by your gut and lungs has a rhythm that’s controlled from your SCN (R).
Acetylcholine is the principle vagal neurotransmitter. This means that it will have many of the same effects as vagal stimulation because this is how the vagus nerve stimulates various organs.
Alpha GPC is the best way to increase acetylcholine. However, I don’t know if it will get to where it needs to go and in the proper dosage, so I doubt it’s as good as vagus stimulation.
Measuring Your Heart Rate Variability
I use this Polar H7 device to measure my HRV and use the Elite HRV app with it.
32 Ways to Stimulate The Vagus Nerve
Studies show that when your body adjusts to cold, your fight or flight (sympathetic) system declines and your rest and digest (parasympathetic) system increases – and this is mediated by the vagus nerve (R).
Any kind of acute cold exposure will increase vagus nerve activation (R).
You can dip your face in cold water to start (R).
I graduated and now take fully cold showers, expose myself to cold, and drink cold water.
Cold can also help you lose weight.
2) Singing or Chanting
Singing increases HRV (R).
Humming, mantra chanting, hymn singing and upbeat energetic singing all increase HRV in slightly different ways (R).
I do Om chanting in my Infrared Sauna (R).
Singing can be viewed as initiating the work of a vagal pump, sending relaxing waves through the choir (R).
Singing at the top of your lungs works the muscles in the back of the throat to activate the vagus.
Energetic singing activates your sympathetic nervous system and vagus nerve and is conducive to getting in a flow state (R).
Singing in unison, which is often done in churches and synagogues, also increases HRV and vagus function (R).
Singing has been found to increase oxytocin (R).
A 12-week yoga intervention was associated with greater improvements in mood and anxiety than a control group who just did walking exercises. The study found increased thalamic GABA levels, which were associated with improved mood and decreased anxiety (R).
Watch and perform this Yoga video, which I find very helpful to do at night.
There are two types of meditation that can stimulate the vagus nerve.
Jon Kabat-Zinn has a Guided Mindfulness Meditation that includes loving-kindness meditation.
5) Positive Social Relationships
In a study, participants were instructed to sit and think compassionately about others by silently repeating phrases like “May you feel safe, may you feel happy, may you feel healthy, may you live with ease,” and keep returning to these thoughts when their minds wandered (R).
Compared to the controls, the meditators showed an overall increase in positive emotions, like joy, interest, amusement, serenity, and hope after completing the class. And these emotional and psychological changes were correlated with a greater sense of connectedness to others — as well as to an improvement in vagal function as seen in heart-rate variability (R).
Simply meditating, however, didn’t always result in a more toned vagus nerve. The change only occurred in meditators who became happier and felt more socially connected; for those who meditated just as much but didn’t report feeling any closer to others, there was no change in the tone of the vagal nerve (R).
You can do this as a meditation or you can actually find someone truly special who is worth your love and kindness. The latter is better, but not easy to get.
I truly believe that to live an optimally happy life you need to be a good and giving person, especially to the people you love and those close to you.
6) Breath Deeply and Slowly
Deep and slow breathing stimulates the vagus nerve (R).
Your heart and neck contain neurons that have receptors called “baroreceptors.”
These specialized neurons detect your blood pressure and transmit the neuronal signal to your brain (NTS), which goes on to activate your vagus nerve that connects to your heart to lower blood pressure and heart rate. The result is a lower fight or flight activation (sympathetic) and more rest and digest (parasympathetic).
The baroreceptors can be more or less sensitive. The more sensitive they are, the more likely they are going to fire and tell your brain that the blood pressure is too high and it’s time to activate the vagus nerve to lower it.
Slow breathing, with a roughly equal amount of time breathing in and out, increases the sensitivity of baroreceptors and vagal activation, which lowers blood pressure and reduces anxiety by reducing your sympathetic nervous system and increasing your parasympathetic system (R).
Breathing around 5-6 breaths per minute in the average adult can be very helpful (R).
Tip: You need to breathe from your belly and slowly. That means when you breathe in, your belly should expand or go out. When you breathe out your belly should cave in. The more your belly expands and the more it caves in, the deeper you’re breathing.
As the saying goes, laughter is the best medicine. Many studies show health benefits from laughing (R).
It seems like laughter is capable of stimulating the vagus nerve.
A study done on yoga laughter found increased HRV in the laughter group (R).
There are various case reports of people fainting from laughter and this may be from the vagus nerve/parasympathetic system being stimulated too much.
For example, fainting can come after laughter, urination, coughing, swallowing or bowel movement -all of which are helped along by vagus activation (R).
Laughter is also sometimes a side effect of vagus nerve stimulation (R).
Off topic: A study looked at 20 healthy older adults in their 60s and 70s, measuring their stress levels and short-term memory. One group was asked to sit silently, not talking, reading, or using their cellphones, while the other group watched funny videos. After 20 minutes, the participants took a short memory test. Participants who viewed the funny videos had much higher improvement in recall abilities, 43.6 percent, compared with 20.3 percent in the non-humor group. The humor group showed lower levels of cortisol (R).
Studies have shown that reciting the rosary prayer increases vagus activation.
Specifically, it enhances cardiovascular rhythms such as diastolic blood pressure and HRV (R).
Studies also find that the reading of one cycle of the rosary takes approximately 10 seconds and thus causes readers to breathe at 10-second intervals (includes both in and out breath), which increases HRV and therefore vagus function (R).
Magnetic fields are capable of stimulating the vagus nerve (R).
Studies have found that PEMF can increase heart rate variability and increase vagus stimulation (R).
I use a pulsed magnetic stimulator called ICES/PEMF in my gut and brain, which increases my appetite and stimulates me. This accords with the idea that it’s stimulating my vagus nerve.
I recommend using this on your gut, brain, side of your neck, etc….
I notice my gut flow increases and inflammation is reduced everywhere when I put this on my gut.
At first, I didn’t understand how it can have systemic effects if I placed it on my gut, but the vagus nerve is probably why, given that the vagus nerve is stimulated by magnets.
10) The Breathing Exerciser, and Exercises
Breathing in and out with resistance will likely stimulate your vagus nerve better – kind of like jogging with a backpack.
I use this Breathing Exerciser to increase breathing resistance.
You can use the Emwave2 to increase Heart Rate Variability, which will increase your vagal tone. This device will give you feedback and it will allow you to pace your breathing better. Some studies use the Emwave equipment to measure vagus activity.
Another breathing exercise it to breathe out as hard as you can until it’s really uncomfortable and until you notice how awake you are. I haven’t seen studies on this, but I suspect it will help with your vagus nerve by transiently increasing your sympathetic system, which will react with a parasympathetic response.
The gut nervous system connects to the brain through the vagus. There is increasing evidence pointing to an effect of the gut microbiota on the brain.
Animals supplemented with L. rhamnosus experienced various positive changes in GABA receptors that were mediated by the vagus nerve (R).
These are my recommended products:
Mild exercise stimulates gut flow. This is mediated by the vagus nerve, which means that exercise stimulates the vagus nerve (R).
Massaging certain areas like your carotid sinus (located on your neck) can stimulate the vagus nerve. This helps reduce seizures (R).
Foot massages can also increase vagal activity, heart rate variability and lower your heart rate and blood pressure (R). All of these decrease heart disease risk.
Intermittent fasting or reducing calories increases the high-frequency heart rate variability (animals) (R), which is a marker of vagal tone.
Indeed, many anecdotal reports show that intermittent fasting benefits heart rate variability.
When you fast, part of the decrease in metabolism is mediated by the vagus nerve.
Specifically, the vagus detects a decline in blood glucose and a decrease of mechanical and chemical stimuli from the gut. This increases the vagus impulses to the brain (NTS) from the liver vagus section, which slows the metabolic rate and also raises our body temperature (i.e. we feel hotter) (R).
Fasting can increase activity in the subdiaphragmatic vagus, which can increase the sensitivity to pain (not good) (animals) (R).
The vagus nerve may make you more sensitive to estrogen. In female rats, fasting increases the number of estrogen receptors in certain parts of the brain (NTS and PVN) and this requires the vagus nerve (R).
15) Sleep or Lay on Your Right Side
Studies have found that laying on your right side increases heart rate variability/vagal activation more than being on other sides. Laying on your back leads to the lowest vagus activation (R).
16) Tai Chi
Tai chi increases heart rate variability, and therefore very likely vagus activation (R).
The vagus nerve activates the muscles in the back of the throat that allow you to gargle.
Gargling contracts these muscles, which activates the vagus nerve and stimulates the gastrointestinal tract.
Before you swallow water, gargle it first.
18) Fish Oil – EPA and DHA
I’m a big proponent of fish in the lectin avoidance diet.
Mice who had their vagus taken out didn’t have the appetite-reducing effects of oxytocin (R).
Zinc is a very common mineral that most people don’t get enough of.
21) Tongue Depressors
Tongue Depressors stimulate the gag reflex….
Some say that gag reflexes are like doing push-ups for the vagus while gargling and singing loudly are like doing sprints.
You need to perform them for several weeks to produce change.
Traditional acupuncture points may offer vagus nerve stimulation (R).
In particular, acupuncture to the ear stimulates the vagus nerve (R).
Acupuncture is powerful enough that it stimulated someone’s vagus nerve to the point that they died from too low of a heart rate (R).
Serotonin is capable of activating the vagus nerve through various receptors.
So serotonin will have some mixed effects, but overall it should stimulate the vagus nerve.
You can take 5-htp to increase serotonin.
24) Chew Gum: CCK
CCK’s ability to reduce food intake and appetite is dependent on the vagus nerve impulse to and from the brain (R).
Chewing Gum should help increase CCK release. (Note: chewing can be bad if you have TMJ or the like).
26) Coffee Enemas
Enemas are like sprints for your vagus nerve. Expanding the bowel increases vagus nerve activation -and caffeine increases bowel flow if you have a coffee enema.
Instructions for coffee enema: First you need to purchase an Enema Bag, which includes the corresponding tubing. If you can spend a little more cash, go with the more pure, Stainless Steel Enema Buckets, especially if you have multiple chemical sensitivities. These are also easier to clean. I recommend watching some youtube videos so that you feel comfortable with the procedure before attempting it yourself.
Make your organic coffee on the stove (best), or in your coffee pot with non-chlorinated filters to save time. For an example of how much coffee to use, if you use a drip coffee pot, use 2 tablespoons of coffee, and 4 cups of purified water. Then fill the enema bucket with the 4 cups of coffee (make sure the clamp on the silicon tubing attached to your enema bucket is closed before you do this, or you will spill coffee everywhere). Fill the rest of the bucket with 6 cups of purified water (or just leave an inch of space at the top of the enema bucket). The coffee mixture should be at room temperature/slightly warm.
You will then need to lie on your right side. It is best to do this in the bathtub in case you spill anything. Place the bucket no more than 18 inches above your head, otherwise, the coffee will flow too fast and you will not be able to retain it. Lubricate the anal tip of the tube with coconut oil, then insert the tube into your anus. Allow the coffee to slowly make its way in. If necessary, hold the clamp down on the silicone tube periodically to allow your body to adjust and absorb the coffee slowly.
Once the coffee has drained from the bucket into your intestines, try to hold the contents in your bowel for 5 to 15 minutes. Over time you should be able to hold it the full 15 minutes. You will have urges to have a bowel movement but hold the contents as long as you can. Some people do two coffee enemas back-to-back for the best effect. Be sure to replace your electrolytes and minerals shortly after.
27) Coughing or Tensing the Stomach Muscles
When you bear down as if to make a bowel movement, you stimulate your vagus nerve. That’s why you might feel relaxed after a bowel movement.
So if you use these bowel movement muscles, it will stimulate your vagus nerve (R).
28) Make Sure Your Thyroid Hormones/T3 Are Normal
These therapies increase my thyroid hormones and improve my mood, which might be as a result of vagus activation.
Insulin activates the vagus nerve in some ways through intermediaries (Technical: insulin activates KATP channels in the arcuate nucleus, decreases AgRP release, and through the vagus nerve, leads to decreased glucose production by the liver by decreasing enzymes that increase blood glucose (G6P, PEPCK)) (R).
Having some carbs here and there might not be the worst idea.
Ghrelin stimulates the pancreas from the brain via the vagus (R).
CRH has variable effects on the vagus nerve.
CRH decreases vagus nerve activity from the brain to the heart. Vagus nerve activation will slow the heart rate, but CRH inhibits this and increases heart rate (R).
CRH stimulates the vagus impulse from the brain (area postrema) to the colon (by activating the dorsal nucleus of vagi, via cholinergic transmission) (R).
Monosodium Glutamate or MSG increases gut flow in dogs, which is mediated by the vagus nerve (R).
Some Basics on How the Vagus Nerve Works (Technical)
You can stimulate or inhibit the vagus nerve in two ways. First, the vagus nerve impulse (activation) can flow from the brain to the rest of the body or from the body to the brain.
When it flows from the brain it’s called a “vagal efferent.” When it flows from some other part of the body to the brain, it’s called a “vagal afferent.” I don’t use these terms for simplicity.
When the signal goes to the brain, it goes to a place called the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Information from various places converges at the NTS and are assimilated. So in computer terms, the NTS is the processor when it comes to the vagus nerve. Information comes in from neurotransmitters, peptides and hormonal signals to shape the resulting output response (R).
From the NTS, there are nerve fibers that connect to another area called the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Hormones or neurotransmitters can activate the vagus nerve from the DMV. For example, GABA in the DMV slows the gut flow, but interestingly, other neurotransmitters don’t have an effect by themselves (they need other inputs) (R).
From the DMV, the electrical or nerve signal gets transmitted to a place like the gut, via the vagus nerve (R).
This happens via vagal “pre-ganglionic” parasympathetic neurons. These preganglionic neurons connect to other “post-ganglionic” neurons and these use acetylcholine to stimulate organs that they connect to, like the gut. These neurons can also inhibit gut function by releasing nitric oxide (NO) or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) (R).
When you stimulate pre-ganglionic neurons in the DMV (animals), it excites the neurons that connect to the gut and increases gut flow (R).
So your vagus nerve system can be messed up in 3 main ways: Communication to the brain (from an organ…via glutamate), communication within the brain (such as from the NTS or to the DMV) or communication from the brain to other areas of the body like the heart, liver, gut, etc…(R).
Given the importance of the vagus nerve in the gut (and other organs), when it’s not working right, it will cause digestive disorders including dyspepsia, gastroparesis, esophageal reflux, colitis, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa, to name a few (R).