Evidence Based
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17 Health Benefits of Ginger + Side Effects

Written by Nattha Wannissorn, PhD | Reviewed by Ana Aleksic, MSc (Pharmacy) | Last updated:
Jonathan Ritter
Puya Yazdi
Medically reviewed by
Jonathan Ritter, PharmD, PhD (Pharmacology), Puya Yazdi, MD | Written by Nattha Wannissorn, PhD | Reviewed by Ana Aleksic, MSc (Pharmacy) | Last updated:

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Ginger has been revered as a culinary and medicinal spice in many traditional cultures. It is also a very powerful remedy with numerous purported health benefits–from reducing nausea and PMS symptoms to fighting inflammation and boosting testosterone. Read on to learn more about all its health potential, dosing, and side effects.

What is Ginger?

What do we know?

As stated by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCIH), there is some information about the use of ginger for nausea and vomiting. Much less information is available about its other uses and purported health benefits [1].

The NCCIH points out that ginger may help relieve pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting, according to some evidence. It may also help to control nausea related to cancer chemotherapy when used in addition to conventional anti-nausea medication [1].

On the other hand, it’s unclear whether ginger is helpful for postsurgery nausea, motion sickness, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis [1].

Today, ginger is also available as a supplement. Ginger supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use. In general, dietary supplements lack solid clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing standards for supplements but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.

Where does it come from?

Ginger is a spice originated from the rhizomes of the plant Zingiber officinale. It is commonly used in many Asian, Ayurvedic, and middle eastern dishes. Ginger use dates back to 3,000 years ago in India.

In fact, ginger is one of the most commonly consumed dietary condiments in the world [2].

What is it used for?

It’s been used for thousands of years as a remedy for diverse health issues, such as colds, nausea, pain, arthritis, migraines, and high blood pressure [2].

Ginger is also an antioxidant that might fight microbes and reduce inflammation.

This spice is a relative of curcumin and cardamon, which all belong to the same plant family.

A lot of ginger and its metabolites accumulate in the gut. That’s why it’s most commonly used for gastrointestinal issues. It’s a great food to eat when following the lectin avoidance diet.

Since ginger is super healthy, we included it in some recipes in the Lectin Avoidance Diet Cookbook.

Active Components of Ginger

Over 100 active compounds have been identified in ginger, fresh or dried!

Gingerols are the major compounds in fresh ginger and less so in dry ginger.

Shogaols are produced from gingerols during the drying process and are present in higher amounts in dried ginger [2].

Ginger also contains zingerone, zerumbone, pungent oleoresins, some terpenoids and flavonoids [3].

All of these compounds are antioxidants, while some of them have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, antimicrobial, and liver-protecting activities. However, these properties were only investigated in cell-based studies. It’s unknown if the active compounds in ginger will have these effects in humans. Further research is needed [3].

As far as ginger root supplements go, a recent analysis of 10 supplements randomly purchased in health stores showed that their active compounds greatly vary. One supplement was high in one active component and low in another, while for the next supplement it was the opposite. Plus, ginger supplements still aren’t standardized to a specified amount of one of the active ingredients [2].

Purported Health Benefits of Ginger

1) Helps with Nausea and Vomiting (from Pregnancy and Chemotherapy)

According to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCIH), the largest amount of information is available for this purported benefit. The NCCIH states that some evidence suggests ginger may help with [1]:

  • Pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting
  • Nausea related to cancer chemotherapy when used in addition to conventional anti-nausea medication

Indeed, ginger is a popular natural remedy for morning sickness during early pregnancy. And according to a review of 6 studies, about 1 g/day reduces morning sickness five-fold if used for at least 4 days in a row [4, 5].

The effects of ginger on nausea are linked to the vagus nerve, the activation of which is usually beneficial. However, over-activating some serotonin receptors (5-HT3) in the vagus nerve pathway to the gut causes nausea and vomiting [6].

Ginger reduces nausea and vomiting probably by blocking excess serotonin and vagus nerve activation in the stomach and gut, based on tissue and cellular studies. Many chemotherapy drugs cause nausea by increasing gut serotonin, which ginger may help safely counteract [7, 8].

HIV medications also cause nausea. Ginger (1 g/day) given before the medications improved both mild and severe nausea in a study of 105 HIV positive people after 2 weeks [9, 10].

2) Reduces Stomach Discomfort

Ginger has a long history of use for digestive disorders. It can increase gut flow to boost digestion and alleviate painful stomach spasms [11].

Ginger helps with indigestion. In 126 people with indigestion, a combination of ginger and artichoke improved digestion, nausea, bloating, and stomach pain after 4 weeks [12].

It increased stomach emptying in a study of 24 healthy people. Each person took 1,200 mg of ginger in capsule form before a meal [13].

Ginger improved digestion, increased antioxidant enzymes, and reduced cortisol in rats with irritable bowel syndrome [14].

Most active components in ginger enhanced digestion in animal studies. Since ginger has over 100 active components, some of them could also relax the gut in animal studies, which could help with painful stomach spasms [15, 16, 17].

Ginger probably doesn’t help with gallbladder issues. It didn’t have any effect on the gallbladder in a small study of 19 people [18].

3) Reduces Inflammation

According to a large analysis of 9 clinical studies, ginger strongly reduces the inflammation marker CRP in the blood. The dose ranged from 1 to 3 g per day, supplemented over 2 – 3 months [19].

It seems to be the pungent components in ginger, also known as oleoresins, that have the strongest anti-inflammatory effects based on animal and cellular studies.

One of ginger’s pungent components blocked a pathway (NF-κB) that reduces the activity of inflammatory genes in immune cells [20].

Like NSAIDs (aspirin and Advil), ginger blocks the inflammation- and pain-causing COX enzymes. This way, ginger reduced the production of inflammatory chemicals (called leukotrienes and prostaglandins) in cells and test tubes [21, 22, 23].

Ginger stopped the release of inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. It could reduce the important inflammation-causing TNF-alpha, as well as IL-1 beta [24].

Some other ginger benefits listed below – such as reducing pain, cramps, and arthritis – are also tightly linked to this key anti-inflammatory activity.

4) May Help Relieve Pain

Ginger shows promise for relieving pain naturally, according to a review of 7 studies that focused on athletes. A ginger dose of roughly 2 g/day may modestly reduce muscle pain from heavy exercise if taken for at least 5 days [25].

Ginger worked as well as the popular painkiller diclofenac (an NSAID also known as Voltaren) in a study of 43 people [26].

In the study, participants took a ginger extract (340 mg) for 4 weeks. Unlike diclofenac, ginger didn’t damage the stomach lining or cause digestive discomfort. However, this study had a small sample size and tested the effects of ginger over a short period of time. Large-scale, long-term studies are needed [26].

5) Effects on Menstrual Cramps

Ginger reduced PMS and menstrual pain in 6 small, low-quality trials, according to which ginger was more effective than placebo and not different from a painkiller commonly used for menstrual cramps (mefenamic acid, an NSAID) [27, 28].

However, the included studies are few, and each one was conducted differently. All suffered from major flaws like poor study design or small sample size. Thus, we can’t draw any solid conclusions about the effects of ginger on menstrual cramps from them  [27, 28].

These studies used the powdered form of ginger at 750 mg – 2,000 mg/day. It was most commonly used during the first 3 days of menstruation.

6) May Help with Osteoarthritis

Ginger improved osteoarthritis symptoms in some studies. In one large study of 261 people with osteoarthritis, a standardized ginger extract reduced the symptoms over 6 weeks. The extract was safe and caused only mild stomach upset [29].

In another study of 75 people with osteoarthritis, ginger was effective only short-term, but the benefits were not sustained. The discrepancy could also be due to the different ginger extracts used. More research is needed to determine if ginger alone can help people suffering from osteoarthritis [30, 31].

7) May Help with Allergies and Asthma

Animal studies hint that ginger may be better for Th2 dominance.  Zerumbone, an active ingredient in ginger, enhanced the Th1 and reduced the Th2 response in mice with allergic asthma. It decreased the production of various Th2 immune substances, helping rebalance the immune system and reduce allergies. Ginger-treated mice had asthmatic symptoms, mucus, and lung inflammation [32].

Additional animal studies validate this traditional ginger use. Ginger helped improve asthma symptoms by suppressing the Th2 immune response and airway inflammation in mice. It could even affect the activity of genes that perpetuate Th2 dominance, possibly with long-term benefits [33, 34].

Ginger relaxed the airways under asthmatic attack in a tissue study [35].

Clinical studies are lacking to back up this purported benefit.

8) Effects on Eczema

6-Shogaol, a ginger compound, reduced eczema in mice. TNF-alpha plays a role in eczema symptoms, such as redness and skin eruptions. Interestingly, eczema is a mixed Th2/Th1 condition, and ginger managed to keep all inflammatory immune substances and pathways under control [36].

For example, TNF-alpha, which is typically a Th1 substance, is high in people with eczema. Eczema is an example of a Th2 condition with some Th1 characteristics. Ginger can reduce TNF-alpha levels, along with other Th2 products. So eczema is still more Th2 dominant, which helps to explain these potentially beneficial effects of ginger on eczema overall [37].

However, clinical studies are lacking to back up this purported benefit. More research is needed to determine the effects of ginger on eczema.

9) May Protect the Stomach

Ginger increased protective prostaglandins in the stomach lining in 43 osteoarthritis patients who used NSAIDs long-term. NSAIDs cause stomach damage by reducing prostaglandins in the stomach, which otherwise help maintain healthy stomach mucus.

Stomach damage is a big issue with long-term NSAIDs use. Ginger might turn out to be useful in people who developed stomach issues from NSAIDs, but further clinical trials are needed [26].

In cellular studies, antioxidants in ginger blocked the growth of stomach-ulcer-causing H. Pylori, mainly by fighting free radicals. Animal and human studies have yet to explore the effects of ginger on H. Pylori [38].

10) May Protect the Liver

May Protect from Drugs and Heavy Metals

Ginger (500 mg/day) helped protect the liver from toxic antituberculosis drugs in a study of 60 people with tuberculosis [39].

Ginger helped slow down aging-related liver damage in old rats. It was compared to alpha-lipoic acid, which had even stronger effects [40].

It may protect from the detrimental effects of heavy metals and drugs on the liver. It protected both the liver and kidneys against cadmium toxicity in poisoned rabbits and from aluminum toxicity in rats. It also prevented liver damage and scarring from painkillers such as piroxicam in mice [41, 42, 43].

May Help with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Ginger (2 g/day) improved liver health, reduced liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and improved insulin resistance in 44 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease after 12 weeks [44].

Ginger essential oil prevented liver disease and maintained healthy lipid levels in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. It also improved fatty liver disease and high triglycerides in rats by “turning off” fat-producing liver genes [45, 46].

11) Is an Antioxidant

Many active components in ginger and its essential oil, such as gingerol and shogaol, are potent antioxidants. They can scavenge free radicals throughout the body and neutralize them — crucial for preventing numerous chronic diseases [3, 47].

This antioxidant activity underlies the immune-balancing and tumor-fighting benefits of ginger, demonstrated in animal and cell studies [3].

Shogaol activated the detox hub – Nrf2 – in brain cells, which may potentially protect from neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s [48].

When added to anti-tuberculosis therapy in 69 people, 3 g of ginger daily boosted antioxidants and reduced inflammation. Thus, ginger might help combat inflammation, the biggest lung-damaging factor in tuberculosis [49].

12) Cancer Research

Active compounds in ginger could reverse some of the hallmarks of cancer in animal and cellular studies. We can’t draw any conclusions from them, however. Clinical studies have not confirmed these effects yet. Many compounds appear to have cancer-killing effects in cells only to turn out to be ineffective or dangerous in humans [50].

Cell-Based Cancer Research

Compounds from a specific steam distilled ginger extract caused cancer uterine cells to die (via apoptosis). This extract reduced the activity of cancer-causing Bcl2 genes by 90% and increased the activity of cancer-fighting genes (p53) [51].

Zerumbone, another ingredient in ginger, triggered pancreatic cancer cell death by acting on the same cancer-fighting pathway (p53). It could also enhance the effects of radiation, making colorectal cancer cells more sensitive to it [52, 53].

Pungent components from fresh ginger blocked the growth of liver and bone cancer cells. Their antioxidant action rendered the cancer cells less invasive [54, 55].

Gingerol blocked cancer blood vessel growth in mice with melanoma and stopped breast cancer from spreading in cells [55, 56].

It also stopped skin, stomach, pancreatic, ovarian, and colon cancer cells from making new blood vessels, which slowed down their growth and spreading. Zerumbone from ginger was mostly responsible for these effects, as it could block an important cancer pathway (NF-κB) in these cell studies [57, 58, 59, 60, 61].

13) May Protect DNA

Ginger protected sperm DNA against oxidative damage in a study of 100 infertile men. All men took 500 mg of ginger powder daily for 3 months, after which their sperm DNA quality greatly increased [62].

Ginger’s DNA-protective effects are not important only for fertility. Ginger essential oils also reduced DNA damage from a mold toxin (aflatoxin B1) in cells [63].

14) Effects on the Heart, Blood Sugar & Weight

Heart & Blood Sugar Research

Ginger can reduce an important inflammation marker (CRP), increase HDL and reduce triglycerides, according to a review of 9 clinical studies (SR). Taken together, this means that ginger may protect the heart from high cholesterol and inflammation. However, much more research is needed [64].

In rats, ginger lowered blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels [65, 66].

6-Gingerol protected blood vessel cells from oxidative stress, which may help prevent hardening of the arteries. We can’t draw any conclusions from cell-based studies [67].

A review of 9 clinical trials revealed that ginger can reduce fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, a marker of long-term glucose levels [64].

Obesity Animal Research

In one study, ginger could keep mice on a high-fat diet from gaining excessive weight. It enhanced fat burning and improved their exercise endurance by activating the PPAR delta pathway. However, it’s completely unknown if ginger impacts weight and fitness in humans. Clinical studies are needed [68].

15) May Fight Microbes

Ginger could kill viruses, bacteria, and yeast in numerous cellular studies. Clinical studies would need to confirm the safety and effectiveness of ginger for various types of infections. Ginger did enhance the effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs in humans, but no clinical studies have explored it yet as a stand-alone remedy.

Effects on the Flu 

In one cell study, only fresh ginger prevented the common cold virus from entering human cells. In another study, the dried ginger worked just as well. It’s still unknown whether ginger can help fight the flu in humans [69, 70].

Potential Antibacterial Effects

Ginger tinctures were antibacterial in cell studies, helping to fight many disease-causing bacteria such as [71, 72, 73]:

  • Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of skin infections
  • Staphylococcus pneumoniae, which can cause serious lung infections
  • Haemophilus influenzae, the common cold
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which causes hard-to-treat hospital infections
  • Salmonella, a cause of food poisoning
  • Escherichia coli, a common cause of UTIs

Ginger extracts also blocked the growth of 19 strains of stomach-ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori, including the drug-resistant ones, in the lab [74].

Yeast and Fungus

In cells, ginger could kill 13 types of fungus that cause human diseases [75].

Ginger tincture blocked the growth of Candida in test tubes [76].

16) May Boost Testosterone in Men

More than 20 years ago, scientists discovered the link between ginger and testosterone for the first time. Ever since the studies have been scattered in the scientific literature. According to a recent review, ginger is able to boost testosterone levels in men, especially in those who are under oxidative stress [77].

In one open-label study of 75 infertile men, 3-month ginger supplementation increased testosterone by 17%. It also increased testosterone-boosting hormones, sperm count and sperm motility. Some parameters were up by 50% [78].

Ginger affects several pathways that in the end lead to increased testosterone, such as the following [77]:

  • Boosting testosterone production (by increasing LH in the brain and cholesterol in the testes)
  • Combating oxidative stress in the testes
  • Boosting antioxidant enzymes
  • Increasing blood flow in the testes and their weight
  • Preserving testosterone receptors

A major limitation of the above study is its open-label design, which creates room for bias and other issues.

And although ginger is generally considered safe, its testosterone-boosting effects have not yet been confirmed in large clinical studies. Proper, double-blind clinical trials are needed to determine the effects of ginger on testosterone in men.

17) May Boost Cognition

Ginger extract enhanced cognition and working memory in a small study of 60 middle-aged women (DB-RCT). All women took 400-800 mg of the extract for 2 months. Ginger’s antioxidant action may be the key to its nootropic effects. However, we can’t draw any conclusion from a single clinical study. Additional large-scale studies are needed [79].

Things to Know About Using Ginger

Risks and Side Effects

According to the available evidence and NCCIH, ginger is believed to be safe when used as a spice. However, have in mind the following [1]:

  • Some people are sensitive to ginger.
  • Ginger may cause stomach discomfort, heartburn, diarrhea, and gas in some people.
  • Some experts recommend that people with gallstone disease use caution with ginger as it may increase bile flow.
  • The effects of long-term supplementation are unknown.
  • Solid research about the substances ginger may interact with is lacking. Limited evidence suggests ginger may reduce the activity of liver enzymes that break down nutrients and drugs. Ginger may interact with blood-thinning medications. Consult your doctor before taking ginger supplements [80, 81].
  • Some studies have found no evidence of harm from taking ginger during pregnancy, but it’s uncertain whether ginger is always safe for pregnant women. If you’re pregnant and are considering taking ginger, talk with your healthcare provider.

Use and Dosage

Ginger dosage varies between 400 mg – 2 g day, depending on the intended use and formulation:

  • Ginger dry extracts are stronger than ginger powder or fresh ginger. The typical dose rarely exceeds 1g/day. For boosting cognition, 400 – 800 mg/day was used in clinical studies
  • Capsules with dried ginger usually contain about 1 g of ginger, a dose that worked well as a digestive aid in studies
  • 1 g/day was used for reducing nausea in studies
  • 750 mg – 2 g/day could reduce menstrual and PMS symptoms
  • 2 g/day of dried or fresh ginger has been researched for reducing inflammation.
  • Ginger tea or a water extract is used for fighting the common cold and for digestive symptoms.
  • Fresh ginger could ward off cold viruses in cellular studies [69].

At a high dose, ginger may cause acid reflux and stomach upset. While ginger is generally safe up to 10 grams daily, some people may be more sensitive to it.

Remember to speak with your doctor before taking ginger supplements.

About the Author

Nattha Wannissorn

Nattha Wannissorn

PhD
Nattha received her Ph.D. in Molecular Genetics from the University of Toronto and her undergraduate degree in Molecular and Computational Biology from the University of Pennsylvania.
Aside from having spent 15 years in biomedical research and health sciences, Nattha is also a registered holistic nutritionist, a certified personal trainer, has a precision nutrition level 1 certification, and is a certified functional diagnostic nutrition practitioner. As a holistic practitioner with a strong science background, Nattha is an advocate of science literacy in health topics and self-experimentation.

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