Jiang, 2014
Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

Top 17 Scientific Health Benefits of Choline (CDP-Choline, Alpha-GPC)

Choline is important for many cellular pathways such as the making of Acetylcholine. It plays a key role in cognitive function, cardiovascular function, and infant development.

Jiang, 2014 Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?
Jiang, 2014 [R]

Introduction to Choline

Choline is an essential water-soluble nutrient that all humans must consume.
At least theoretically, most humans get enough from dietary sources, though some populations have higher requirements. As is the case with many essential nutrients, there may be benefits to supplementation with supra-dietary amounts both generally and in patients with high risk of deficiency [RR].

The molecule can be oxidized to betaine or phosphorylated (addition of phosphoryl group) to phosphocholine in cells [R].

Choline is needed in order to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is required for cognitive and muscular function [R].

It is also very important in breaking down Homocysteine [R].

Choline Snapshot

Here are alpha GPC options with no excipients:

Choline Snapshot


  • Helps liver function
  • Decreases inflammation
  • Great for brain function, especially since it increases myelin
  • Good for physical and mental performance
  • Good for mood


Health Benefits of Choline

1) Low Choline Levels Will Cause Liver Damage


Choline is needed to make Phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine is important in breaking down lipids in the liver [R].

Therefore low choline levels can lead to lipid accumulation in the liver.

In a study conducted in healthy adults, a large percentage of subjects exposed to low choline diets developed fatty liver disease and other liver problems [R].

These effects were reversed when more choline was introduced into the diet [R].

Liver damage caused by low choline may in turn cause obesity, hypertension, or insulin resistance [R].

2) Choline May Decrease Inflammation

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Choline has been shown to decrease levels of inflammatory response factors in the body [R]. Agonism of some acetylcholine receptors is directly anti-inflammatory [R].

Choline may therefore improve symptoms of inflammatory diseases such as Asthma.

3) Choline Is Required To Build Myelin And Increases Myelination

Choline is an important nutrient for myelin, which is critical for intelligence and IQ [R].

In animal models of multiple sclerosis, CDP-choline exerted beneficial effects on myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons [R].

After drug-induced demyelination, CDP-choline effectively enhanced myelin regeneration and reversed motor coordination deficits [R].

The increased remyelination arose from an increase in the numbers of proliferating oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells [R].

4) Choline Can Help Improve Cognitive Performance


Acetylcholine is an essential molecule within the nervous system.

Without acetylcholine the nervous system cannot transmit information within the body [R].

Cognitive decline often occurs, in part, because of a shortage of acetylcholine [R].

By increasing choline intake, subjects can increase acetylcholine levels, decrease cognitive decline [R] and protect the nervous system from degeneration [R].

A study showed that subjects taking CDP-choline caffeine beverages had improved cognitive abilities [R].

Some studies have shown that CDP-choline can improve memory [R].

Another study showed that CDP-choline can help improve a subjects attention [R].

5) Choline Can Help Improve Symptoms of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

Trials have shown that increased choline intake has improved symptoms of patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease [R].

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder caused by the deterioration of motor neurons, which causes stiffness and trembling in extremities [R].

Studies have shown that choline may help to relieve these symptoms [R].

6) Low Choline Levels May Increase Risk of Cancer


High levels of Homocysteine are a known risk factor for Cancer [R].

Without the choline needed to break down Homocysteine, the risk of developing cancer may theoretically increase [R].

However, one study found that higher choline levels were associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer [R].

Choline is highly concentrated in prostate cancer cells, and blood concentrations of choline have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer [R].

A study showed that high levels of choline in the diet could decrease the risk of developing breast cancer [R].

The study also showed that mutations in the gene that breaks down choline could increase the risk for breast cancer [R].

Bottom line: Choline is a vital nutrient in preventing breast cancer.

7-9) Choline May Help Schizophrenia, Bipolar and Autism

Schizophrenia and autism can be caused by maternal iron deficiency during gestation [R].

In rats, it was found that prenatal choline supplements can help reduce the likelihood of at-risk subjects developing these disorders later on in life [R].

Schizophrenia and autism developed due to genetic predispositions may also be avoided by prenatal choline supplements [R].

In a study performed on subjects with Schizophrenia, subjects taking CDP-choline showed improved cognition and working memory after treatment [R].

A few studies have shown that choline could help treat bipolar disorder and may be a useful complement to pharmaceutical interventions [RR].

10) Choline May Improve Recovery of Those Suffering From Brain Injuries


Recovery from brain injury can be a lengthy and even lethal proccess[R].

CDP-choline has been shown to help the brain recover from traumatic injuries [R].

11) High Levels of Choline May Help Increase Athletic Performance

A study showed that high levels of Alpha GPC, a source of choline, helped improve weight lifting and athletic performance [R].

Subjects showed muscle damage when on a low choline diet [R].

12) High Levels of Choline May Decrease Appetite

Levels of CDP-choline of 2000mg/day were shown to decrease a subjects appetite [R].

13) Choline May Help Treat Drug Addiction

Some evidence has shown that CDP-choline can help reduce addiction to drugs such as cocaine [R].

14) Choline is Essential to Fetal Development

Choline is very important in fetal development.

Many pregnant women do not consume enough choline [R].

In the early years of infancy while the mother is breastfeeding, it is important that the mother consumes high amounts of choline [R].

Choline is essential in building the nervous system, promotes cell division and tissue expansion [R].

As a necessary precursor to acetylcholine, choline is crucial to the development of the fetal brain [R].

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and are characterized by “physical anomalies, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and neurocognitive deficits, including intellectual, executive, and memory deficits”[R].

Studies have shown that choline may help mitigate the symptoms of such disorders [R].

15) Choline is Important in Determining Gene Expression During Development

Gene expression is an important part of determining an individual’s characteristics.

Some genes in the body may be turned off while others are turned on.

Most aspects of gene expression are determined during fetal development [R].

Some genes are turned off through DNA methylation while other genes remain on [R].

Betaine, a choline metabolite, is essential in providing methylation enzymes with methyl groups [R].

Without a source of methyl groups, methylation cannot occur and gene expression cannot be altered.

16) Low Choline Levels May Prevent Proper Lipid Metabolism in The Intestines

Phosphatidylcholine is essential for lipid metabolism within the intestines [R].

Because choline is needed to make phosphatidylcholine, low choline levels can limit production.

A study done in lactating rats showed that low choline levels led to higher levels of unmetabolized lipids in the intestines [R].

It was also shown that low choline levels lead to a reduction of absorptive intestinal surface area [R].

17) Choline May Help Improve Symptoms of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease caused by pressure behind the optic nerve. The disease can lead to blindness.

A study showed that when subjects with the disease were given CDP-choline, symptoms of Glaucoma were significantly improved [R].

This suggests that treatment with choline could be a complement to other treatments for Glaucoma [R].


Humans given low choline diets in a study had more creatine phosphokinase (CPK) leakage from cells [R].

This leakage caused cell death and DNA damage [R].

Choline Has a Mixed Effect on Cardiovascular Disease

Choline supplies methyl groups for methylation [R].

Without available methyl groups Homocysteine cannot be converted to Methionine [R].

Homocysteine therefore remains in the system and accumulates [R].

This accumulation can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease [R].

CDP-choline has also been shown to slightly lower blood pressure, which may help in preventing cardiovascular disease [R].

However, choline gets degraded by the gut microbiota to TMAO and increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events [R].

Buying Choline

Both Alpha GPC and CDP choline are good sources of choline that reach the brain.  I personally take Alpha GPC.

Any of the following are good.

Alpha GPC:

CDP Choline:

Dietary Sources and Dosing

Foods that are rich in choline include [R]:

  • Eggs
  • Chicken
  • Fish
  • Liver
  • Nuts

Vegans are more likely to be at risk of having low choline levels [R].

The recommended levels of choline intake per day are as follows:

  • Adult men should consume 550 mg of choline per day   [R].
  • Adult females should take 425 mg of choline per day [R].
  • Pregnant females should take 450 mg of choline per day [R].
  • Nursing females should take 550 mg of choline per day [R].

Risks and Side Effects of Choline

Side effects of taking choline supplements may include upset stomach, vomiting or diarrhea [R].

However, one study found that higher choline levels were associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer [R].

Choline is highly concentrated in prostate cancer cells, and blood concentrations of choline have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer [RR2].

Choline gets degraded by the gut microbiota to TMAO and increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events [R].

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  1. Scott Murray

    I do not eat red meat and eat chicken and turkey occasionally. I have a history of prostate cancer in my family . I want to make sure I get enough choline for brain and body health but am concerned about the cancer risk.
    How much is safe to take and do you have any suggestions??
    Thanks !

  2. anna burns

    What about getting choline from lecithin? It’s in a whole food form and seems would be more bioavailable. I really like sunflower seed lecithin, not so hot about soy lecithin. Just wondering your opinion. Thanks

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