Oxidative stress can cause many different diseases – cancer, brain disorders, heart problems, and more. Read more below to learn about how you can protect your body againt its negative effects.
- What Are Free Radicals?
- Benefits of Free Radicals
- Bad Aspects of Free Radicals:
- What are Antioxidants?
- What About Antioxidant Supplements?
- Oxidative Stress on SelfDecode
Scientists widely use the term “oxidative stress”. It refers to a serious imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense, leading to potential tissue damage (R).
‘Free radical species’ summarizes a variety of highly reactive molecules that can be divided into different categories. The most prominent members of such categories include superoxide O2·−, hydroxyl radical OH·, and peroxy radical ROO· (R).
Under normal conditions, the rate and magnitude of oxidant formation are balanced by the rate of oxidant elimination. However, an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants results in oxidative stress(R).
Oxidative stress can cause either a positive response (cell proliferation) or a negative cell response (growth arrest or cell death). (R).
What Are Free Radicals?
Metal-catalyzed reactions produce reactive oxidant species(R).
They are present as pollutants in the atmosphere (R).
ROS are produced by neutrophils and macrophages during inflammation (R).
They are also by-products of mitochondria-catalyzed electron transport reactions and other mechanisms (R).
Benefits of Free Radicals
It has become apparent that plants actively produce ROS as signaling molecules to control processes such as programmed cell death, stress responses, pathogen defense and systemic signaling (R).
Free radical reactions are essential for host defense mechanisms as with neutrophils, macrophages and other cells of the immune system. However, if the body overproduces free radicals, they cause tissue injury and cell death (R).
ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signaling cascades, and can induce cell death, functioning as anti-tumorigenic species (R).
O2 and H2O2 function as second messengers activating numerous signaling molecules, which play an important role in vascular biology and cardiovascular disease (R).
One further beneficial example of ROS at low concentrations is the induction of a mitogenic response, meaning they can trigger cell growth and differentiation (R).
Bad Aspects of Free Radicals:
As many as 200 human diseases have been associated with increased levels of oxidative stress (R).
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence many physiological processes including host defense and cellular signaling and their increased production through oxidative stress plays a role in many diseases (R).
These diseases include:
- Cancer (R).
- Vascular diseases (R).
- High cholesterol (R, R2).
- Hypertension (R, R2).
- Parkinson’s disease (R).
- Alzheimer’s disease (R).
- Diabetes (R).
- Kidney disease (R).
- Cardiac hypertrophy (R).
- Heart failure (R).
- Stroke (R).
1) Free Radicals Damage Cells
At high concentrations, ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins and nucleic acids (R).
2) Oxidative Damage Helps Cause Diabetes
Oxidative stress causes an excessive formation of free radicals which weaken defense mechanisms against further oxidation and that increases the likelihood of more cell damage, insulin resistance, and further complications of diabetes (R).
3) Oxidative Damage Causes COPD
The harmful effects include oxidative inactivation of cells, excessive secretion of mucus, membrane lipid peroxidation, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and cell death (R).
This cycle occurs because oxidation causes various protein dysfunctions, and that hinders the operation of functions that restore a healthy oxidant/antioxidant balance (R).
4) Oxidative Stress Contributes to Cancer
While a high level of oxidative stress is cytotoxic to the cell and halts proliferation by inducing apoptosis or even necrosis, a low level of oxidative stress can in fact stimulate the cell division in the promotion stage and thus stimulate the promotion of tumour growth (R).
There is a link between increased levels of ROS and disturbed activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tumor cells (R).
What are Antioxidants?
Living organisms have evolved a number of antioxidant defenses to maintain their survival against oxidative stress (R).
In order to avoid free radical overproduction from oxidative stress, antioxidants are present in tissues to neutralize these free radicals (R).
Antioxidant defense mechanisms involve both enzymatic and nonenzymatic strategies. (R).
Other antioxidants include – lipoic acid, mixed carotenoids, coenzyme Q10, several bioflavonoids, antioxidant minerals (copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium), and the cofactors (folic acid, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12) (R).
They work in combination with each other and against different types of free radicals (R).
What About Antioxidant Supplements?
Recent trials from the U.K. demonstrated that subjects consuming high fruit and vegetable diets had significantly reduced blood pressure (R).
In experimental models of hypertension and in human patients with coronary artery disease, exercise reduced ROS production ameliorated vascular injury, and reduced blood pressure (R).
Decreasing ROS generation and increasing nitric oxide availability and antioxidants may prevent or repair organ damage by reducing vascular injury and renal dysfunction (R).