Low Levels of Uric Acid and Diseases Associated with It
Blood uric acid levels are considered low (hypouricemia) at 2 mg/dl or less .
It is not considered to be a medical condition, but a useful medical sign.
Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, and Motor Neuron Disease
Lower blood values have been associated with several nervous system disorders such as:
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) 
- Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 
- Huntington’s disease (HD) 
- Parkinson’s disease (PD) 
It has been proposed that higher blood uric acid levels may be neuroprotective. In a large population-based cohort study, a negative relationship was observed between gout and Parkinson’s disease in patients aged 65 and above. A similar trend has been shown between uric levels and Huntington’s disease, suggesting that uric acid may play a role in preventing neurodegeneration [5, 6].
Reduced in Optic Neuritis
Uric acid levels are lower in patients with optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the optic nerve that is often the first symptom of Multiple Sclerosis .
Wilson’s Disease Can Lead to Low Uric Acid Levels
Wilson’s disease is a disease in which copper accumulates in tissues of vital organs like the brain and liver. It can lead to decreased blood uric acid levels because of associated kidney problems (i.e., Fanconi syndrome) that increase urinary uric acid excretion .
What Causes Low Uric Acid Levels?
Hypouricemia can be found in 1% of hospitalized patients. In most cases, the cause is related to drugs like salicylates, allopurinol, x-ray contrast agents, and glyceryl guaiacolate .
In addition, drugs like losartan (an angiotensin II receptor antagonist drug), fenofibrate (drug of the fibrate class, mainly used to reduce cholesterol levels) and some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the serum uric acid (SUA) levels .
Also, forced diuresis (increased in urination) used mainly in the treatment of renal colic (abdominal pain from kidney stones) in suicide-attempt patients may result in hypouricemia .
The human urate transporter 1 (URAT 1) and human glucose transporter-like protein 9 (GLUT 9) are two kidney urate transporters.
A genetic mutation in these two transporters is responsible for idiopathic hypouricemia .
The gene SLC2A9 encodes a protein that helps transport uric acid in the kidney. Variants of this gene are known to have significant associations with blood uric acid .
Uric acid levels are influenced by your genes. If you’ve gotten your genes sequenced, SelfDecode can help you determine if your levels are high or low as a result of your genes, and then pinpoint what you can do about it.
Several malignant diseases including Hodgkin’s disease, sarcoma, glioblastoma, and a variety of carcinomas have been associated with hypouricemia .
By following a low purine diet, uric acid levels can be lowered by only 15% at most .
In a case study of molybdenum deficiency, blood hypouricemia was present .
Patients with high copper/Fe levels experience hypouricemia .
Magnesium intake is correlated with less likelihood of high uric acid levels in males. This might be to magnesium’s laxative effect, which may play a potential role in increasing the excretion of uric acid .
Estrogen suppresses the production of the protein that eliminates urate in the kidney (proximal tubule epithelial cell organic anion transporter), while androgens stimulate it. This explains the lower serum urate levels in postmenopausal women as opposed to men .
Treatment with Agents that Increase Uric Acid Levels
3) Animal Products
Animal products increase levels in general .
4) Alcohol Consumption
Alcoholic drinks increase uric acid levels .
A high sodium diet can lead to an increase in blood uric acid levels over time .
6) Intense Exercise
Uric acid levels rise after strenuous exercise, potentially a result of purine nucleotide degradation during conditions of high energy usage .
Uric Acid’s Antioxidant & Prooxidant Mechanisms
Uric acid antioxidant activities:
- Uric acid acts as a strong antioxidant and scavenges reactive oxygen species and chelates transition metals [26, 27].
- Uric acid prevents peroxynitrite-induced protein nitrosation, fat and protein peroxidation, and the inactivation of tetrahydrobiopterin BH4, a cofactor necessary for NOS [28, 29, 30].
- Uric acid protects LDL from copper-mediated oxidation (but increases the oxidation of already oxidized LDL) .
Uric acid pro-oxidant and inflammatory activities:
- By increasing arginase activity, uric acid diverts l-arginine from nitric oxide (NO) generation to urea production. Uric acid also directly reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to produce nitrosated uric acid .
- Uric acid uptake in fat cells activates NADPH oxidase and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which can initiate an inflammatory reaction .
- Uric acid can activate the NF-κB and MAPK pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells and increase the production of cyclooxygenase and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) .
- Uric Acid and Inosine Increase IQ, Productivity, and Lifespan
- Causes of High Uric Acid, Associated Diseases, and Fixes
Irregular Uric Acid Levels?
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