NADPH helps protect the immune system and is important in many reactions of the body. It can also increase longevity. Read more below to learn more about NADPH.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is used as a reducing agent in anabolic reactions, such as fat and DNA synthesis. It also generates free radicals in immune cells (R).
It is produced in response to cytokines and growth factors (R).
NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a multicomponent enzyme and is present in phagocytes (R).
The enzyme generates superoxide by transferring electrons from NADPH inside the cell across the membrane and coupling them to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anion, a reactive free-radical (R).
Health Benefits of NADPH
1) NADPH Increases Longevity
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are associated with aging and diseases prominent in the elderly. This includes high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart problems.
NADPH oxidases (NOX) are a major source of ROS in the body. They also play a key role in mediating redox signaling under normal conditions.
NOX-mediated ROS signaling pathways regulate ‘longevity genes’. They play a role in age-associated vascular changes and in the development of age-related heart diseases (R).
NOX therapies may potentially improve the health of the elderly population (R).
NOX is a major source of ROS in biological systems. Under normal conditions the processes are sometimes beneficial and necessary for life; however, under abnormal conditions, it can be very harmful (R).
2) NADPH’s Helps the Immune System
By generating free radicals in immune cells, it helps destroy pathogens through respiratory burst.
NOX plays an important role in regulating antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Microbes and microbial-derived products activate NOX (R).
It assembles quickly and makes reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs) defend against the infectious threat (R).
Without it, excessive inflammation can cause frequent and harsh bacterial and fungal infections (R).
3) NADPH Increases Antioxidants
NADPH increases the amount of antioxidants in the body (R).
It influences mitochondrial metabolism, which can be used as cancer therapy (R).
4) NADPH Helps Prevent Anemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency causes anemia. G6PD deficiency is the most common enzyme disorder in the world, affecting more than 400 million people (R).
G6PD, which plays a key role in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. It converts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) into its reduced form, NADPH (R).
G6PD deficiency makes red blood cells more susceptible to H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species which may cause anemia, spontaneous abortions, and problems with fetuses (R).
- Generating NADPH/NOX also depends on the availability of mitochondria (R).
- Additionally, he isocitrate dehydrogenase mechanism is a major source of NADPH in fat and possibly also liver cells (R).
- In mitochondria, NADH kinase produces NADPH and ADP. Lipid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, as well as fatty acid chain elongation, uses it (R).
- Nox1-3 also depends on different cytosolic subunits (R).
- After knockout, p22phox rescued the production of hydrogen peroxide or superoxide (R).
- However, it did not have the same effect with the DUOX-maturation factors DUOXA1/A2 (R).
- However, native p22phox is necessary for the maturation of Nox4 and production of hydrogen peroxide (R).
What Increases NADPH
What Decreases NADPH
The addition of ter-butyl-hydroperoxide or paraquat may cause a decrease in NADPH concentration (R).
High concentrations of NADPH may cause endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and lung problems (R).
ROS cannot selectively kill tumor cells, so it might not effectively stop cancer.
It cannot be controlled like other treatment methods for cancer where the drugs can selectively induce apoptosis only in cancer cells. ROS induce apoptosis, but the apoptosis affects all cells, not just tumor cells (R).
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