Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is an important protein found in the blood. It decreases the effects of sex hormones (especially testosterone) by reducing their availability but also enhances their functions by transporting them to their target tissues. Unusually high or low blood SHBG levels are normally caused by hormone imbalances and can be indicative of several disorders. Read on to learn more about this protein, the diseases associated with changes in its concentration, and how to maintain optimal levels.

What is SHBG?

What Does SHBG Do?

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), also known as testosterone-binding globulin, is a protein that binds to sex hormones and carries them through the blood [1, 2].

SHBG binds to the following sex hormones, listed in order of affinity [3]:

  • Dihydrotestosterone/DHT (male)
  • Testosterone (male)
  • Androstenediol (male)
  • Estradiol (female)
  • Estrone (female)

SHBG has a greater affinity for male sex hormones (androgens) than female sex hormones (estrogens).

The main functions of SHBG include:

  • Controlling the availability of sex hormones [4]
  • Transporting sex hormones through blood [5]

SHBG is mainly made in the liver, where its production is stimulated by female sex hormones and thyroid hormones [6, 7].

SHBG Production

SHBG can also be made in these organs:

  • Brain [8]
  • Kidneys [9]
  • Breasts [10]
  • Uterus [11]
  • Placenta [12]
  • Ovaries [13]
  • Prostate [14]
  • Testicles [15]

SHBG is also produced by some types of tumors, such as breast, ovarian, and uterine [16, 17, 18].

SHBG production is blocked by:

SHBG levels are very low in babies of both sexes (10x lower than in their mothers) and increase gradually during childhood until puberty when they decrease 2x in girls and 4x in boys. The lower SHBG levels in boys allow for higher concentrations of available male sex hormones, which are necessary for their growth in height and the development of their sex organs [22, 23, 1].

In adult men, SHBG levels are stable for many years but progressively rise as they age, which causes a reduction in free but not in total male sex hormone levels [24, 25].

In adult women, SHBG progressively decreases from 20 – 60 years and starts increasing after that [26].

Roles of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

1) Reduces the Availability and Activity of Sex Hormones

Only unbound (free) hormones can cross cell membranes and reach their targets. By binding to sex hormones, SHBG can reduce their availability and thus, their activity. However, unbound hormones also disappear more quickly from blood [27, 4, 5].

Because SHBG has more affinity for male hormones, it mainly reduces the activity and elimination rate of male sex hormones. SHBG levels are lower in men than in women, implying that both the activity and elimination rate of male sex hormones are higher in men. Conditions that cause increased SHBG production (e.g., hyperthyroidism) reduce the activity and elimination rate of sex hormones. Conditions that result in decreased SHBG levels (e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome) increase both activity and elimination rate [3, 28, 29].

2) Transports Sex Hormones Through Blood

Since sex hormones are fatty molecules and can’t dissolve in water, they are transported through the body by binding to a protein like SHBG or albumin. While female sex hormones can undergo modifications that allow them to dissolve in water, male sex hormones need to be bound to transport proteins [5, 30, 31].


SHBG can bind to receptors on cell membranes and stimulate the production of a messenger molecule (cAMP), implying that it may not only transport sex hormones to their target tissues but also trigger biological effects [32, 33].

Genetics of SHBG

There are several variations in the SHBG gene, that could increase or decrease blood levels of this protein and are linked to different conditions [34]:

  • The rs6257 mutation reduces blood SHBG levels and is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in women and type 2 diabetes in both men and women [35, 36].
  • The presence of the rs6258 mutation reduces the affinity of SHBG for testosterone, resulting in higher levels of free testosterone [37].
  • The rs6259 variant increases SHBG levels by reducing its elimination and has been associated with a decreased risk of breast and uterine cancer in women, low sperm movement in men, and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in both men and women [38, 39, 40, 36].
  • rs1799941 increases blood SHBG levels and has been associated with a higher bone density and lower sperm quality in men, and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in both men and women [41, 42, 43].
  • The SHBG gene can be longer or shorter depending on the number of repeats of a certain sequence. More than 6 repeats (rs35785886 variant) decreases SHBG production. This mutation is associated with conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), excessive body hair, delayed onset of the first period, and coronary artery disease in women, and low sperm concentration and increased bone density in men [44, 45, 46, 47, 41].

SHBG Blood Test

When is the SHBG Blood Test used?

The SHBG blood test is not routinely ordered and is most often used when symptoms of sex hormone imbalance are not accompanied by changes in their blood concentration [48, 49].

Free testosterone levels can be indirectly calculated using SHBG by assuming that 44 – 65% of testosterone is bound to SHBG and 33 – 50% to albumin in men, while 66 – 78% is bound to SHBG and 20 – 30% to albumin in women. Free testosterone levels reflect the availability of this hormone more accurately than the total testosterone concentration [50, 51, 48].

Additionally, SHBG levels can be used as a marker of conditions such as:

  • Thyroid disorders [52, 53]
  • Pituitary gland disorders [54]
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) [55, 56]
  • Insulin resistance [57]
  • Metabolic syndrome [58]
  • Androgen receptor disorders [59]
  • Eating disorders [60]

Normal Ranges

Men: 10 – 57 nmol/L

Women: 18 – 144 nmol/L

High Levels of SHBG

Symptoms of High SHBG Levels

Symptoms of high SHBG are similar to those of low male sex hormone levels.

In men, they include [61, 62]:

  • Arrested sexual development (in teenagers)
  • Infertility
  • Decreased sperm concentration and motility
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Impotence
  • Reduced testicle size
  • Breast growth
  • Decreased body hair
  • Hot flashes
  • Reduced bone and muscle mass
  • Decreased energy and motivation

In women, high SHBG levels may cause [63, 64, 65]:

  • Decreased sex drive
  • Irregular or absent periods
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Reduced bone and muscle mass
  • Memory losses
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Tiredness
  • Reduced wellbeing

Causes of High SHBG Levels

1) High Estrogen Levels

During the menstrual cycle, estrogen levels increase when the egg is released from the ovaries. In an observational study on 12 women, this rise in estrogen levels was accompanied by an increase in the SHBG concentration in the blood [66].

Birth control pills are powerful combinations of synthetic female sex hormones and progesterone. In three studies of 270 people, SHBG levels were up to 4x higher in women taking oral contraceptives. SHBG levels dropped after discontinuation but were higher than before treatment [67, 68, 69].

In an observational study on 40 male-to-female transsexuals, During their transition, male-to-female transsexuals take male sex hormone production blockers and female sex hormones, which can increase SHBG levels [70].

In two studies, hormone replacement therapy increased SHBG levels (observational study on 443 and clinical trial of 42 women) [71, 72].

Studies in cells found increased SHBG production at high concentrations of the following female sex hormones:

  • Estradiol and hydroxyestradiol [73, 74, 75]
  • Estrone and hydroxyestrone [75]
  • Estriol [75]

2) High Thyroid Hormone Levels

Increased blood SHBG levels were measured in 3 observational studies with a total of 70 people with excessive thyroid hormone production (hyperthyroidism) [52, 76, 77].

An observational study on 59 patients with different types of hyperthyroidism found higher SHBG levels [78].

Similarly, intake of thyroid hormone (T3) increased blood SHBG levels in 7 healthy men (RCT) [79].

Both T4 and T3 increased SHBG production in healthy and human liver cancer cells [80, 7, 81, 82, 83].

3) Low Growth Hormone Levels

In an observational study on 74 men and women, SHBG levels were higher in individuals with a hereditary growth hormone deficiency [84].

4) Pregnancy

During mid to late pregnancy, SHBG levels increase up to 5 – 10x [1].

In two studies on women undergoing ovarian stimulation, SHBG levels increased when they became pregnant, probably as a result of the increase in sex hormones [85, 86].

5) Liver Issues/Disorders

Since SHBG is mainly produced in the liver, liver damage can result in abnormal SHBG levels [87].

In a study with 167 men, chronic alcoholic liver inflammation (cirrhosis) was associated with increased SHBG levels [88, 89].

Similarly, abnormally high SHBG levels were measured in men with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis (study on 50 men) [90].

However, in another study, SHBG levels were within normal ranges in women with both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis. But levels did increase in women with alcoholic cirrhosis who abstained from alcohol for 3 months (a study of 111 women) [91].

In a study on 32 women with hepatitis, disease severity was associated with higher SHBG. Severe hepatitis B viral infection was correlated with higher SHBG levels but not uncomplicated or chronic hepatitis B viral infection. Women with severe hepatitis unrelated to hepatitis B also had elevated levels [92].

This same correlation between disease severity (as measured by fibrosis) and SHBG was seen in 46 men with hepatitis C infections [93].

Excess iron levels in the liver (iron overload) can also cause high SHBG [94].

6) Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol consumption was correlated with higher SHBG levels (as well as higher luteal estrogen and lower testosterone) in premenopausal women. It was not correlated with changes in other sex hormones levels studied (observational study on 2,000 women) [95].

7) Smoking

Smoking has been associated with increased SHBG levels in several studies with a total of over 4,000 people [96, 97, 98, 99].

In two studies with a total of 101 people who quit smoking, SHBG levels started to drop within a few weeks [100, 101].

8) Physical Exertion

In three studies with a total of 101 people, physical strain increased SHBG levels [102, 103, 104].

Changes in SHBG levels from exercise may be affected by age. In 35 people, after a triathlon, SHBG levels were higher in the older participants (50 – 74 years old) but not the younger (~20 years old) [105]

In another study with 12 people, SHBG levels were decreased following a marathon [106].

9) Stress

Men and women undergoing a stress test had elevated levels of SHBG (and testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels, as well as increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) (study with 39 participants) [107].

However, in an observational study of 1,215 Danish men, self-reported stress levels did not impact reproductive hormone levels (SHBG, LH, FSH, testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and inhibin B) [108]

10) Malnutrition/Anorexia

Malnutrition (protein and calorie deficiency) is correlated with higher SHBG levels.

In one study, SHBG levels were elevated in 29 female anorexic patients. When they were given a caloric IV infusion, their SHBG levels dropped. In patients that gained at least 5% weight, SHBG dropped to normal levels [109]

However, in a study with 86 malnourished children (severe protein deficiency, general malnourishment, or anorexia), only the children with severe protein deficiency or anorexia had elevated SHBG levels [110].


In two observational analyses on a combined 1,350 men, those infected with HIV had higher blood SHBG levels [111, 112].

12) Acute Intermittent Porphyria

Acute intermittent porphyria, a rare genetic disorder, is associated with elevated SHBG. Of the 12 patients with a clinical manifestation of the disease, all of them had elevated SHBG. The remaining 14 patients had latent porphyria and all but one of them had normal levels [113].

Conditions Associated With High SHBG Levels

1) Bone Loss

High SHBG was linked to reduced bone density in eight studies with 3,500 people [114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120].

In an observational study, women with high SHBG levels were had an average bone loss (2.2% a year) almost twice as high as women with low SHBG (1.2% a year) (study on 9,704 elderly women) [121].

Seven observational studies on over 4,500 men and women associated high blood SHBG levels with increased incidence of bone fractures [122, 114, 123, 124, 125, 126].

However, two studies failed to find a link between high blood SHBG levels and increased risk of bone fractures (178 men, 7,598 women) [126, 127].

2) Alzheimer’s Disease

In a meta-analysis, high SHBG levels were linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Two other studies with 1,700 people came to the same conclusion [128, 129, 130].

3) Prostate Cancer

High SHBG levels were strongly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in 279 men. An observational study found a slightly increased risk but only in younger men [131, 132].

However, a meta-analysis of 8 studies and another study (963 men) failed to find a link between high SHBG and increased incidence and death rate of prostate cancer [133, 134].

All About Low SHBG Levels

Symptoms of Low SHBG Levels

Symptoms of low SHBG levels are similar to those of excessive male sex hormone levels.

In females, they include [135, 136, 137, 138, 139]:

  • Excessive body hair/male-pattern hair growth (hirsutism)
  • Acne
  • Dandruff
  • Baldness
  • Voice deepening
  • Increased muscle mass
  • Reduced breast size
  • Irregular or absent periods
  • Enlargement of the clitoris
  • Weight gain

Though rare, low SHBG in males may cause:

  • Early puberty (in children) [140]
  • Acne [141]
  • Baldness [141]
  • Increased body hair [141]
  • Aggression [142]
  • Erectile dysfunction [143]
  • Gynecomastia (breast growth) [144]
  • Infertility [145]

Causes of Low SHBG Levels

1) High Insulin Levels

In a study on 47 women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), high blood insulin levels were linked to low SHBG concentration [146].

Similarly, Mexican-Americans (a population with a high risk of type 2 diabetes) have higher insulin and lower SHBG levels than non-Hispanic whites (study on 96 individuals) [147].

Intake of diazoxide (a medication for low blood sugar) increased SHBG levels in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (study on 6 patients) [55].

Three studies found reduced SHBG production in human liver cells treated with insulin [148, 149, 149].

Another study found that insulin (0.1 – 0.4 UI/kg dosages) increased SHBG production in men with type 2 diabetes (trial with 20 men) [150].

However, a study in cells suggested that the effect of insulin on SHBG levels is non-specific and reflects a reduced production of proteins [151].

2) High Growth Hormone Levels

Acromegaly is a disorder in which the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone in adults. Several observational studies with over 100 people have measured lower SHBG levels in patients with acromegaly [139, 152, 153].

In overweight healthy men, injection of low growth hormone doses (0.02 U/kg/day for 14 days) decreased blood SHBG levels (clinical trial on 8 individuals) [154].

3) High Prolactin Levels

A prolactinoma is a tumor in the pituitary gland that causes the excessive production of the hormone, prolactin (PRL). Prolactinomas reduced blood SHBG levels in a study with 20 people. In another study on 28 women with excessive prolactin production, treatment with the drug bromocriptine restored prolactin and SHBG levels [54, 155].

In a cell study, the addition of prolactin reduced SHBG production [19].

4) High Testosterone Levels

High testosterone levels are normally considered to reduce SHBG production. The addition of testosterone blocked SHBG production in two cell studies [156, 157].

However, testosterone had no effect on SHBG production in two cell studies and stimulated SHBG production in two other cell studies [7, 158, 159, 74].

5) Thyroid Hormone Levels

The relationship between low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) and SHBG concentration is unclear. While three studies found decreased SHBG levels in hypothyroid patients, three other studies measured normal SHBG levels in patients with low thyroid hormone levels [53, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164].

6) High Growth Factor Levels

In a cell study, the addition of the growth factors IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor), EGF (epidermal growth factor), and TGF-alpha (transforming growth factor alpha) reduced SHBG production [165].

However, a study with 1,135 men did not find a correlation between IGF-1 and SHBG levels [166].

7) Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Since SHBG is made in the liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may affect its levels in the body.

Low SHBG levels have been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in studies done with type 2 diabetics and PCOS, however, it’s difficult to prove causality based on these studies [167, 168, 169, 170].

8) Inflammation

Inflammatory markers, which indicate a pro-inflammatory state, were associated with lower SHBG levels in 433 women [171].

In another study, a marker of inflammation (hs-CRP) was associated with lower SHBG in 696 people [172].

9) Genetic Mutations

Genetic mutations can result in low SHBG levels. A mutation in the SHBG gene resulted in undetectable levels of SHBG in two siblings [173].

10) High Sugar Levels

In genetically modified mice that produce human SHBG, a high sugar diet reduced SHBG production by 50% after 1 week [174].

Conditions Associated With Low SHBG Levels

1) Type 2 Diabetes

A meta-analysis of 43 observational studies of over 13,000 people found a protective role of high SHBG from developing type 2 diabetes, especially in women [175].

Another meta-analysis of 15 studies found a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes among men and women with mutations causing increased SHBG production [176].

Similarly, two studies with 2,500 people found a link between low SHBG levels and increased type 2 diabetes risks [177, 36].

In two studies with 690 people, this correlation was only seen in women [178, 179].

2) Gestational Diabetes

Low pre-pregnancy SHBG is a risk factor for developing diabetes during pregnancy in an observational study of 256 women [180].

3) Obesity and Obesity-Related Conditions

Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the following symptoms [181]:

  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • High blood sugar levels
  • High blood triglyceride levels
  • Low blood levels of HDL cholesterol

In a meta-analysis of 52 studies, metabolic syndrome was associated with low SHBG levels in both sexes [58].

Low SHBG levels are a good indicator of metabolic syndrome based on 2,465 people [182, 183, 184].

Insulin sensitivity was associated with high SHBG levels in three studies with 320 people [185, 186, 57].

4) Breast Cancer

A meta-analysis of 9 studies found a link between low SHBG levels and increased risk of developing breast cancer [187].

Two observational studies of over 2,800 people found the same correlation [188, 189].

5) Heart Disease

In two studies, low SHBG levels were associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease in close to 4,000 women [190, 191].

6) High Blood Pressure

In an observational study of 2,816 people, low SHBG was a risk factor for high blood pressure, but only in men [192].

7) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

SHBG levels were lower in 23 women with PCOS [55, 56].

Although two studies with 857 women total found a link between a variation causing reduced SHBG production and polycystic ovarian syndrome, two studies of 596 women failed to find the same correlation [193, 194, 195, 196].

Another study examining all four SHBG SNPs (rs1779941, rs6297, rs6259, and rs727428) did not find any associations with PCOS [197].

8) High Cortisol

Cushing’s syndrome is when people have abnormally high cortisol [198].

Cushing’s syndrome was linked to reduced SHBG levels in multiple studies with a total of 135 people [199, 200, 201, 202].

9) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disorder in which the body produces insufficient cortisol and excessive male sex hormone levels [203].

In 240 people, congenital adrenal hyperplasia was associated with higher SHBG levels in women but not in men [204].

How do you Increase or Decrease SHBG Levels?

How to Increase SHBG Levels

Individuals wishing to increase their SHBG levels will be most likely women with symptoms of male sex hormone excess. Some lifestyle changes that can help them include:

1) Dietary Changes: Mediterranean Diet

A study of 27 obese men found that a low-fat, high-fiber diet, with exercise, effectively increased SHBG levels [205].

Additionally, the following foods and beverages increase SHBG production:

2) Physical Exercise

Moderately intense aerobic exercise for a year increased SHBG levels in 102 people (RCT) [212].

Similarly, moderate to intense exercise for a year increased SHBG and reduced estradiol and free estradiol levels in 320 women (RCT) [213].

A study of 13,547 women found that exercise was associated with higher SHBG levels. Higher BMI was associated with lower SHBG levels [214].

3) Caffeine Intake

Regular coffee intake was linked to increased blood SHBG in multiple studies with a total of 19,000 people [214, 215, 216, 217, 218].

Different types of caffeinated drinks (coffee, green tea, black tea, oolong tea, and cola) were linked to increased SHBG levels in 50 women [208].

However, a randomized control trial with 42 people had mixed results and did not find significant effects of coffee consumption (regular or decaf) on SHBG levels [219].

4) Weight Loss

In multiple studies, SHBG levels increased after weight loss (3 RCTs of 311 total people) [220, 221, 222, 223].

Weight loss from either a higher-protein/low-fat diet or a higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diet increased SHBG levels (RCT with 118 overweight/obese men) [224].

How do you Lower SHBG Levels?

SHBG reduces testosterone availability. Because testosterone can increase athletic performance, some people may want to lower their SHBG levels [225].

1) Dietary Changes

High-protein diets were associated with reduced blood SHBG levels (study with 1,552 men) [226].

In a study on 36 women (RCT), one cup of red wine daily reduced blood SHBG levels, while white wine did not [227].

2) Taking Supplements

The intake of the following supplements decreases SHBG production and/or reduces its interaction with sex hormones:

Drugs That Control SHBG Levels

Note: By writing this section, we are not recommending these drugs. We are simply providing information that is available in the scientific literature. Please discuss your medications with your doctor.

1) Drugs That Increase SHBG Levels

Oral Contraceptives

Because they include synthetic female sex hormones, birth control pills can increase SHBG levels.

Treatment with different combinations of birth control pills all caused an increase in SHBG levels, to different degrees, with the highest from 30 mg ethinylestradiol with 2 mg dienogest (DB-RCT of 91 subjects) [67].

Both a triphasic birth control (containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene) and a monophasic version (containing 35 mg ethinylestradiol and 250 mg norgestimate) increased SHBG levels 200 – 240% on days 11 and 21. Even on pill-free days, SHBG levels were elevated compared to pre-treatment (RCT with 46 women) [68].

SHBG levels in women currently taking birth control pills were 4x higher compared to women who have never taken it. Discontinuing the pill decreased SHBG levels slightly, but they were still higher than those who had never taken it [69].

Aromatase Blockers

Treatment with the aromatase blockers, risedronate (35 mg/week) or letrozole (2.5 mg/day), increased SHBG levels in two clinical trials (DB-RCT) [237, 238].

Anti-Seizure Medication

SHBG levels increased in epileptic patients treated with anti-seizure medication in several studies:

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

The following selective estrogen receptor modulators increased SHBG levels in clinical trials:

  • Tamoxifen (breast cancer medication) [243]
  • Raloxifene (osteoporosis and breast cancer medication) [244]
  • Bazedoxifene (osteoporosis medication) [245]
  • Clomiphene (women infertility medication) [246]
  • Ospemifene (medication for painful sexual intercourse in women) [247]
  • Toremifene (breast cancer medication) [248]


Several clinical trials have found that metformin (type 2 diabetes medication) increased SHBG levels [249, 250, 251].

Certain Antipsychotics

SHBG levels raised after treatment with conventional antipsychotic medications (haloperidol, haloperidol with chlorpromazine, or chlorpromazine) but not with olanzapine, a second-generation antipsychotic, even when olanzapine was taken with conventional antipsychotics (RCT of 68 patients) [252].

2) Drugs that Reduce SHBG levels

Treatments with the following glucocorticoids used against inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and allergies decreased SHBG in several human trials:

Irregular SHBG Levels?

Use Lab Test Analyzer to Interpret your Lab Results

LabTestAnalyzer helps you make sense of your lab results. It informs you which labs are not in the optimal range and gives you guidance about how to get them to optimal. It also allows you to track your labs over time. No need to do thousands of hours of research on what to make of your lab tests.

LabTestAnalyzer is a sister company of SelfHacked. The proceeds from your purchase of this product are reinvested into our research and development, in order to serve you better. Thank you for your support.

Click here to subscribe


1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars
(17 votes, average: 4.59 out of 5)

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.