Progesterone has a lot of benefits. People often have an imbalance of their progesterone and estrogen ration – with too much estrogen and not enough progesterone.
Progesterone belongs to a group of hormones called progestogens and these are involved in the menstrual cycle, embryo creation, and pregnancy of humans and other species (R).
Progesterone is produced and released by the ovaries and maintains fertility in women.
Progesterone and Fertility
Progesterone prepares the uterus for egg attachment and maintains pregnancy and prevents further ovulation during pregnancy.
Progesterone is required for ovulation, fertilization and production of hormonal cells of endometrial glands.
Progesterone stimulates the growth of maternal breast tissue and milk glands. Progesterone needs estrogen to affect the breasts since estrogen induces the production of the progesterone receptors in breast tissue to prime the breasts (R).
Too Little Progesterone
According to research, low levels of progesterone cause definite abnormalities (R).
Low progesterone may cause irregular or absent menstrual bleeding.
Low progesterone may be due to amenorrhea (no periods), failure to ovulate or possible miscarriage (R).
Low progesterone blood levels is associated with low percentage of ovulation in infertile women. It can prevent women from getting pregnant (R).
Even in pregnant women, progesterone is still required to maintain the uterus. If it is at a low level, the uterus may not be able to carry the fetus and can result in a miscarriage (R).
Low progesterone level may result in or pregnancy that occurs outside of uterus (R).
Too Much Progesterone
If the progesterone level is higher than normal level, this may be due to pregnancy, adrenal cancer, ovarian cancer, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (R).
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a disorder that affects the adrenal gland by lacking an enzyme which the adrenal gland needs to make the hormones (R).
Progesterone pills, either alone or in combination with estrogen, prevent ovulation, as well as pregnancy.
Progesterone in Males
Although progesterone is thought as female sex hormone, it is also produced in the adrenal cortex in both sexes and in the testes of males (R).
Progesterone is also associated with less markers of obesity in men. Obese men with lower progesterone levels have higher BMI and waist circumference (R).
Progesterone in Hormone Therapy
Hormone therapy is used to treat certain symptoms of menopause. It works by replacing the estrogen that is no longer produced by the body (R).
Studies show that using synthetic progesterone (progestin) with estrogen increases the breast cancer risk compared to estrogen alone. By contrast, using natural progesterone with estrogen does not affect breast cancer risk (R).
Before the menopause years, cells from the endometrium are shed during menstruation. When the endometrium is no longer shed, cells are overgrowth in the uterus by estrogen, which can lead to cancer. Progesterone decreases the risk of endometrial cancer by making endometrium thin.
Progesterone: The Good
1) Progesterone is an Anti-Inflammatory
Progesterone has anti-inflammatory actions (R).
It suppresses NF-κB and MAPK activation, which then inhibits proinflammatory markers (like TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2) (R).
2) Progesterone May Help Lower Weight
Progesterone is also associated with less markers of obesity in men. This means that men with higher progesterone levels have lower BMI and waist circumference (R).
In hamsters, the combination of progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol interact to lower their fat (lipid) stores. This causes them to lose weight (R).
3) Progesterone Reduces Blood Pressure
Women’s blood pressure can rise after they go through menopause. Progestin, a synthetic version of progesterone, slightly lowers blood pressure in women with menopause. The combination of progestin and estrogen administration in 12 postmenopausal women lowered blood pressure by 6 to 7 mm Hg (R).
4) Progesterone Protects Bone Health
Progesterone stimulates bone growth. In human bone cells, progesterone administration promote bone cell formation. It activates osteoblast (bone forming cells) activity (R).
Although progesterone does not prevent bone loss, it can work with other drugs as co-therapy to decrease fractures in postmenopausal women (R).
5) Progesterone Protects Against Cancer
In the endometrium, progesterone stops estrogen-driven cell growth. This helps protect against endometrial cancer (R).
In obese women, a progesterone deficiency can increase their risk for endometrial cancer (R).
6) Progesterone May Reduce Anxiety
Progesterone and progestin (synthetic progesterone) might help decrease anxiety in women. However, there does not seem to be a correlation between progesterone levels and anxiety in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (R, R).
In mice, progesterone administration helped reduce anxiety (R).
7) Progesterone Helps Sleep
In a study (DB-RCT) of 8 postmenopausal women, progesterone administration restored normal sleep when sleep was disturbed (R).
8) Progesterone Improves Mood
There are progesterone receptors located in the areas of the brain that are involved in thinking and emotion (hippocampus and amygdala). Progesterone increases serotonin transmission, which helps improve mood (R).
9) Progesterone Helps With Common Symptoms of Menopause
The high ratio between estrogen and progesterone causes the problems of menopause.
Giving people progesterone cream can help with hot flushes, mood swings, insomnia, night sweats, vaginal dryness and restlessness (R).
10) Progesterone Causes Relief From Menstration and PMS Symptoms
Causes of PMS include cyclical changes in hormones, changes in the brain, and depression.
Progesterone along with other drugs called diuretics, NSAIDS, and antidepressants can help with these conditions (R).
14 days after ovulation, if there is no pregnancy, the uterus presses in and this causes bleeding.
Low progesterone causes uncontrolled menstrual bleeding, so progesterone administration can limit bleeding (R).
11) Progesterone Helps Maintain Fertility
Women with low progesterone levels can have otherwise unexplained miscarriages (R).
Progesterone is an important hormone during pregnancy. It decreases inflammation, which helps maintain early pregnancy (R).
In a review, progesterone administration helped improve pregnancy outcome in women that had miscarriages before (R).
12) Progesterone Improves Muscle Mass
In postmenopausal women, progesterone improves muscle mass by promoting muscle protein synthesis. It also increased MYOD1 gene activity, which helps increase muscle mass (R).
Progestin (synthetic progesterone) also increases muscle strength in postmenopausal women (R).
13) Progesterone Helps Reverse Baldness
At high doses, progesterone inhibits the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, and prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (R).
14) Progesterone Improves the Skin
Progesterone cream application can improve skin health in women. It slows down the skin aging process (R).
In a study (DB-RT) of 40 postmenopausal women, a progesterone cream improved elasticity and reduced more wrinkles than the control (R).
15) Progesterone Protects Nerve Cells
Progesterone improves the integrity and function of cell membranes. In the brain, progesterone receptors helps protect nerve tissue (R).
Progesterone: The Bad
1) Synthetic Progesterone May Increase Heart Disease Risk
2) Progesterone Might Causes Missed Periods
Progesterone causes mice not to ovulate or have periods (R).
Progesterone stops cells at the surface of the uterus from dividing and causes sores on the surface of the uterus. This causes the uterus to bleed (R).
3) Progesterone Increases Breast Cancer Risk
Progesterone can activate progesterone receptor target genes and increase cell formation/replication in breast cancer cells (R).
Ina study of one million women, a treatment with estrogen and synthetic progesterone caused an increase in breast cancer risk (R).
Progesterone blocks the action of oxytocin.
Progesterone on SelfDecode
Progesterone tablets can be taken orally.
Progesterone cream taken on the skin can be 5-7 times more powerful than progesterone taken orally.
Progesterone cream can be taken through vaginal or anal routes.
Preferred progesterone cream:
Other potentially good progesterone creams:
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