Urobilinogen is a byproduct of bilirubin that is eventually eliminated through the stool and urine. Although urobilinogen is normally found in the urine, higher or lower levels may be a sign of a liver problem. Read on to find out what urobilinogen is, how it can be tested, what its levels may reveal about your health, and ways to increase or decrease this compound.

What is Urobilinogen?

Urobilinogen is a colorless pigment produced from the breakdown of bilirubin by gut bacteria. The majority of this compound is excreted in feces, and a small amount is reabsorbed and excreted in the urine [1].

When bilirubin production increases because of red blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or liver disease, urobilinogen levels rise in the urine. On the other hand, when insufficient bilirubin reaches the gut due to decreased bile flow, urobilinogen production is reduced, resulting in extremely low or absent urinary urobilinogen levels. For these reasons, a urobilinogen test is used with other tests to help detect liver, gallbladder, or red blood cell problems [1, 2+].

What is the Urobilinogen Test?

Urobilinogen is most commonly measured in the urine. This is usually done as part of a urinalysis test, which measures many other substances in your urine, including proteins, ketones, and glucose. A urinalysis is often part of a routine health exam to screen for early signs of disease [3].

Your doctor may also order this test to monitor existing liver conditions, or if you have symptoms of liver disease. These include [4, 5, 6]:

  • yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • dark-colored urine
  • nausea and vomiting
  • itchy skin
  • pain and swelling in the abdomen
  • chills
  • fever
  • loss of appetite
  • weakness/fatigue
  • disorientation or confusion

Urobilinogen levels can also be measured in the stool (although this is not done as often).

Normal Urobilinogen Levels

Urobilinogen is normally found in trace amounts in the urine (0.2 – 1.0 Eu/dL) [7+].

Urobilinogen levels > 4.0 mg/dL are considered abnormal [8].

However, these values vary from lab to lab.

Low Urobilinogen Levels

Causes of Low Urobilinogen

1) Reduced Bile Flow

Cholestasis, or reduced bile flow from the liver to the intestines, can cause bilirubin to build up in the bloodstream instead of being eliminated normally. This can reduce the production of urobilinogen, which leads to lower levels in the urine [1, 9+].

Urinary urobilinogen levels were significantly lower in infants with biliary atresia (narrow, blocked, or absent bile ducts) compared to healthy infants in an observational study of 75 infants [9].

Causes of cholestasis include [10]:

  • Bile duct blockage (gallstones, cysts, and tumors)
  • Liver disease/damage
  • Pregnancy
  • Severe infection
  • Pancreatic cancer

Generally, if you have symptoms of liver disease and bilirubin in your urine but an absence of or low urobilinogen, this suggests that not enough bile is flowing to your gut [1, 5].

2) Certain Medications

Broad-spectrum antibiotics destroy gut bacteria, which can prevent the production of urobilinogen [1].

In a study of 18 healthy people, antibiotic treatment for 6 days reduced urobilinogen levels in the stool [11].

False Negative Results

Some factors can interfere with your lab tests and cause false negative results. These include [1, 3, 12, 8+]:

  • Exposure of urine sample to direct sunlight – urobilinogen breaks down when exposed to sunlight
  • Substances that acidify urine (e.g. vitamin C)

Symptoms of Low Urobilinogen Levels

Symptoms of low urobilinogen levels depend on the underlying cause. If you have reduced bile flow, you may experience [13, 10]:

  • Itchy skin
  • Fatigue
  • Yellow complexion (jaundice)
  • Dark urine
  • Lightly colored or foul-smelling stool
  • Anorexia
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss

Ways to Increase Urobilinogen:

1) Treat Underlying Conditions

Address any underlying conditions that are causing low urobilinogen levels.

If you have cholestasis (reduced bile flow), promote the health of your liver by:

  • Eating a well-balanced diet [14]
  • Drinking moderate to high (>3 cups) amounts of coffee (regardless of caffeine content) on a regular basis [15, 16]
  • Getting more quality sleep [17]
  • Eating more foods that can help detoxify the liver and kidneys such as asparagus, cabbage, and broccoli [18]
  • Drinking more water [18]
  • Buying organic meats and vegetables whenever possible to avoid chemical additives and pesticides that damage the liver [19]
  • Going to the saunasaunas are beneficial for decreasing toxins in the body [20]
  • Limiting your alcohol intake – excess alcohol can damage liver cells and worsen existing liver conditions [21]
  • Reviewing your medications – some drugs or supplements can damage the liver. Have a doctor or pharmacist review your medications to see if any could be harmful to the liver [22, 5]

2) Review Your Medications

If you are taking antibiotics, discuss lowering your dose or alternative options with your doctor.

High Urobilinogen Levels

Causes of High Urobilinogen

1) Liver Disease or Damage

Liver damage and disease (e.g., viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis) can increase bilirubin levels, resulting in higher urobilinogen levels in the urine [1].

Urobilinogen levels also correlate with blood levels of liver enzymes (e.g. ALT, AST), which rise in response to liver damage [23].

2) Excessive Red Blood Cell Breakdown

Conditions that increase the destruction of red blood cells (e.g. hemolytic anemia, pernicious anemia, intravascular hemolysis, congestive heart failure) raise bilirubin levels, which increases the production of urobilinogen in the gut [1, 24, 3].

Usually, if you have excess red blood cell destruction (hemolysis), you will have urobilinogen in your urine but undetectable amounts of bilirubin [1, 25].

3) Malaria

Urobilinogen levels were higher in 365 malaria patients [26].

Another study of 620 people with malaria found that the presence of urobilinogen in the urine was associated with an increased risk of severe malaria with the following complications [27]:

  • Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
  • Neurological dysfunction
  • Liver dysfunction

False Positive Results

Factors that can lead to false-positive results include [8+]:

  • Elevated nitrate levels in the urine
  • High carbohydrate intake
  • Timing (test is done later in the afternoon)
  • Drugs that make the urine red, such as phenazopyridine (Pyridium)

Symptoms of High Urobilinogen Levels

Symptoms of high urobilinogen levels in your urine depend on the underlying cause. If you have a liver or gallbladder disease, you may experience [4, 5, 6]:

  • yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • dark-colored urine
  • nausea and vomiting
  • chills
  • fever
  • loss of appetite
  • weakness/fatigue
  • disorientation or confusion

If you have hemolysis (red blood destruction), you may have [28, 28]:

  • dark urine
  • back pain
  • yellow skin (jaundice)
  • rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
  • anemia

Ways to Decrease Urobilinogen

1) Eat a Well Balanced Diet

Eating a well-balanced and nutritious diet can promote liver function. One study of 10 people found that eating healthy lunches consisting of high amounts of vegetables for one month reduced blood levels of ALT (a marker of liver damage) by 20.3% [14].

2) Improve Sleep Quality

Good sleep is essential for liver health. Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality significantly increased the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in an observational study of 69k people [17].

3) Drink More Coffee

Drinking moderate to high amounts of coffee (regardless of caffeine content) on a regular basis may benefit liver health. In an observational study of 28k people, drinking more than 3 cups of coffee per day was associated with lower levels of liver enzymes (e.g. ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT) [15].

4) Opt for Organic Foods

Buy organic meats and vegetables whenever possible to avoid chemical additives and pesticides. These substances can damage your liver [19, 29, 30].

5) Detoxify the Liver

Consuming more asparagus, cabbage, and broccoli can help detoxify the liver and kidneys [18].

Drinking enough water helps your liver flush out toxins [18].

Saunas are also beneficial for decreasing toxins in the body. Sweating is your body’s method of detoxification [20].

6) Limit Your Alcohol Intake

Drinking too much alcohol can damage liver cells and worsen existing liver conditions [21].

Alcohol also decreases red blood cells, which may exacerbate anemia. One observational study of 17.7k people found that red blood cell count was reduced by alcohol consumption, with even the lowest intake showing a significant decrease in red blood cells [31].

7) Review Your Medications

Some drugs or supplements can damage the liver [5, 22]:

  • Paracetamol (Tylenol)
  • Aspirin
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Methyldopa
  • Amiodarone
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Phenothiazines (such as chlorpromazine)
  • Sodium valproate
  • Oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy
  • Chaparral leaf
  • Ephedra
  • Gentian
  • Germander
  • Kava
  • Senna
  • Vitamin A
  • EGCG [32]

Have a doctor or pharmacist review your medications to see if any could be harmful to the liver.

8) Exercise

If you have anemia resulting from red blood destruction exercise may help. Moderate physical activity signals the body to produce more red blood cells to increase the oxygen supply to your muscles [33].

However, avoid more intense and strenuous forms of exercise, as these can damage and destroy red blood cells. This is one of the reasons endurance athletes often have anemia [34].

Limitations and Caveats

One study found that although the urine urobilinogen test was a good screen for elevated blood bilirubin levels, it was not as useful for detecting liver problems due to a high proportion of false-negative results [35].

Also, there is a shortage of studies published on urine urobilinogen testing, so it is unclear how reliable it is in assessing problems with the liver, gallbladder, and red blood cells.

Irregular Urobilinogen Levels?

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