Ginseng improves fatigue, performance, cognition, and is anti-cancer. It is an herbal plant that has been used for thousands of years in Eastern medicine. Read more to learn about how this ancient plant can improve your health.
- What is Ginseng?
- Common Types of Ginseng
- Active Constituents of Ginseng
- Health Benefits of Ginseng
- Ginseng Has Anti-Cancer Effects
- Ginseng is Neuroprotective and is Good for the Brain
- Ginseng is Anti-Inflammatory
- Ginseng Improves Metabolic Health
- Ginseng Helps with Fatigue
- Adverse Effects and Contraindications
What is Ginseng?
Ginseng is an herbal plant found in North America and eastern Asia.
There are many different types of ginseng (American, Red, Indian, and others), American ginseng being a very popular one. American ginseng is known for its stimulant properties and is highly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Native Americans have used it as a headache reliever and treatment for fever and indigestion. It has been known to be effective for boosting mood, immunity, and cognition. Many studies have suggested that ginseng may protect against cancer.
Ginseng extracts can be safely taken as a supplement in 200mg to 400mg doses, although whole ginseng can be found and used in Chinese medicine. Higher doses may lead to anxiety and restlessness.
Common Types of Ginseng
American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
American ginseng is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and is used to calm and to combat fatigue. It is also thought to regulate hormones, relieve stress, and stimulate the immune system. American ginseng must be aged for six years until it is considered acceptable for medicinal use.
Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng)
Asian ginseng, also called red or Korean ginseng, is considered the opposite of American ginseng, where Asian ginseng is thought to stimulate the nervous system and enhance cognitive performance. It shows promise in helping with neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and stroke.
Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
While not considered a true ginseng, Siberian ginseng has anti-fatigue properties and helps with the immune system, much like Asian ginseng. Siberian ginseng is not a true ginseng but has many similar properties, leading to its common name.
Active Constituents of Ginseng
- Protopanaxadiol-type (PPD), including Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rg3, and Rh2
- Ginsenosidesprotopanaxatriol-type (PPT), including Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rh1 ginsenosides
- Protopanaxatriol-type (PPT), including Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rh1 ginsenosides
- Ocotillol-type, such as 24-(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11
- Oleanolic acid-type, such as Ro ginsenoside
In addition, non-ginsenosides are also found in ginseng, including:
- Polyacetylenes, including panaxynol and panaxydol
- Arginine (the amino acid) and its derivatives such as arginyl-fructose and arginyl-fructosyl-glucose
Pharmacokinetics of various components of ginseng vary greatly (R).
Health Benefits of Ginseng
Ginseng Has Anti-Cancer Effects
1) Ginseng Upregulates Anti-Cancer Enzymes
In mice, panaxydol (made from ginseng) increased cancer cell death (R).
2) Ginseng and Breast Cancer
A ginseng compound, ginsenoside-CNT, decreased cell survival rates and cancer cell growth (R).
3) Ginseng and Lung Cancer
Ginseng extract increased cancer cell death in lung cancer cells, which may tumor growth (R).
Constituents from Korean ginseng inhibits metastasis of transplanted lung cancer cells in mice (R).
4) Ginseng and Liver Cancer
Ginseng berry extract increased cell death and prevented cell growth in liver cancer cells (R).
Ginsenoside compound K (made from ginseng) prevented certain cancer-promoting enzymes from working properly in liver cells (R).
5) Ginseng and Skin Cancer
Ginseng root extract reduced the number of skin tumors in mice compared to mice not treated with ginseng (R).
A type of sugar (oligosaccharide) derived from ginseng has anti-cancer effects in skin cancer cells by increasing macrophage function (R).
6) Ginseng and Prostate Cancer
Microwave-irradiated processed ginseng prevented cancer cells from further growth and increased cell death in prostate cancer cells (R).
Ginseng is Neuroprotective and is Good for the Brain
6) Ginseng Helps with Brain Inflammation
Panax ginseng reduced symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and decreased inflammation (R).
7) Ginseng Reduces Adverse Effects of Alcohol Toxicity on the Brain
8) Ginseng Support Recovery from Nervous System Damage
Ginseng may improve motor function recovery after a spinal cord injury by reducing inflammation in mice (R).
9) Ginseng May Help with ADHD and Learning
Korean red ginseng reduced the inattention and hyperactivity scores for children with ADHD symptoms compared to ADHD children not given Korean red ginseng (R).
Ginseng treatment increased the learning performance for impaired rats and may improve spatial cognitive impairment (R).
10) Ginseng Regulates the Stress Response
Ginseng restored behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular, and tissue changes for sleep-deprived mice (R).
Ginseng treatment helps with physical performance and increases resistance to stress and aging by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which increases elevated plasma corticotropin and corticosteroid levels (R).
Ginseng is Anti-Inflammatory
11) Ginseng Has Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects
Ginseng extract prevented inflammation and protected cells from pneumococcal bacteria infection in mice (R).
Ginseng increased the growth of wound-healing cells, or fibroblasts, and increased collagen synthesis in human dermal cells (R).
Ginseng protected against chromatin damage in sperm, which leads to reproductive fitness (R).
Ginseng Improves Metabolic Health
12) Ginseng Helps with Weight Loss
Ginseng therapy was associated with increased psychological performance and mood, and decreased body weight and fasting blood glucose in patients with newly diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes (R).
Ginseng Helps with Fatigue
Enzyme-modified ginseng extract treatment decreased fatigue severity in healthy adults (R).
13) Ginseng Helps with Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue
A ginsenoside treatment reduced aminotransferase and creatinine levels, indicators of adverse chemotherapy side effects, in mice (R).
Ginseng increased the score for fatigue, well-being, and overall quality of life in patients with cancer-related fatigue (R).
14) Ginseng Can Enhance Sexual Performance
Ginsenosides reduce the stress of the corpus cavernosum, the area of the penis that contains the most blood during an erection (R).
Adverse Effects and Contraindications
As a stimulant, ginseng may cause nervousness and/or sleeplessness, as well as high blood pressure, anxiety, vomiting, and diarrhea in high doses (R).
Symptoms of excessive ginseng use include mastalgia (breast pain), skin reactions, and vaginal bleeding (R).