Evidence Based
1

What is Maltodextrin & is it Bad For You? Benefits, Dangers

Written by Anastasia Naoum, MS (Health Informatics) | Reviewed by Ana Aleksic, MSc (Pharmacy) | Last updated:
Medically reviewed by
Jonathan Ritter, PharmD, PhD (Pharmacology) | Written by Anastasia Naoum, MS (Health Informatics) | Reviewed by Ana Aleksic, MSc (Pharmacy) | Last updated:

SelfHacked has the strictest sourcing guidelines in the health industry and we almost exclusively link to medically peer-reviewed studies, usually on PubMed. We believe that the most accurate information is found directly in the scientific source.

We are dedicated to providing the most scientifically valid, unbiased, and comprehensive information on any given topic.

Our team comprises of trained MDs, PhDs, pharmacists, qualified scientists, and certified health and wellness specialists.

Our science team goes through the strictest vetting process in the health industry and we often reject applicants who have written articles for many of the largest health websites that are deemed trustworthy. Our science team must pass long technical science tests, difficult logical reasoning and reading comprehension tests. They are continually monitored by our internal peer-review process and if we see anyone making material science errors, we don't let them write for us again.

Our goal is to not have a single piece of inaccurate information on this website. If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please leave a comment or contact us at [email protected]

Note that each number in parentheses [1, 2, 3, etc.] is a clickable link to peer-reviewed scientific studies. A plus sign next to the number “[1+, 2+, etc...]” means that the information is found within the full scientific study rather than the abstract.

Dangers of Maltodextrin

Maltodextrin usually brings to mind a processed sugar added to packaged foods. It has no nutritional value and can increase the risk of diabetes, obesity, and inflammation. Another form of maltodextrin is a digestion-resistant dietary fiber that promotes gut health and prevents chronic diseases. Keep reading to be able to spot the differences and understand the health benefits and risks of each.

What are Maltodextrins?

Maltodextrin is a complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) derived from plant sources, such as rice, potato, corn or wheat [1].

Maltodextrin can exist in either a digestible or a digestion-resistant form [2].

The digestible form of maltodextrin (MD) is a good source of energy, but it can increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, and other health issues [3, 4].

Resistant maltodextrin (RMD) is a dietary fiber that enhances gut health, improves digestion problems, and prevents diabetes and obesity [5, 6].

What is Maltodextrin (Digestible)?

The digestible maltodextrin is a common ingredient in foods and the one associated with health dangers. Although maltodextrin is a plant extract, it is highly processed. This white powder is industrially produced by breaking down starch (with enzymes or acids), followed by purification. The final product is tasteless and soluble in water [7, 8, 1, 9].

Maltodextrin is used as a food additive because it can [1, 10]:

  • Provide a cheap source of energy in sports drinks
  • Enhance texture or flavor
  • Preserve packaged or canned foods
  • Prevent ice growth in frozen foods
  • Thicken liquids similar to gelatin
  • Replace sugar or fat in low-calorie foods

It is also used as a filler or a preservative in medical or cosmetic products [1, 10].

Maltodextrin has around 4 kcal/gr and a very high glycemic index, around 100 [1, 11].

What is Resistant (Digestion) Maltodextrin?

Unlike regular maltodextrin, digestion resistant maltodextrin can be a health-enhancing substance. It is a dietary fiber produced by a chemical process that changes the bonds between the sugars, making it impossible to digest [5, 12].

You may associate hi-maize and raw potato starch with resistant starch. Although these two are more widely known, resistant maltodextrin is another type of resistant starch (type 3, 4 or 5) [5, 13, 14].

Since resistant starch cannot be digested by the small intestine, it passes to the gut intact. Gut bacteria in the colon ferment it into beneficial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), butyrate, and vitamin K2. Resistant starch also helps the good bacteria grow and stay balanced [15, 15].

Resistant maltodextrin promotes digestion, bowel movements, and gut health. It has powerful effects on general wellness, helping to prevent diabetes, heart diseases, obesity, inflammatory conditions, and cancer [5, 15, 16].

Resistant maltodextrin is a white powder with a neutral taste. It has a low glycemic index and around 2-2.5 kcal/gr [13, 5, 17, 18, 19].

Maltodextrin vs. Resistant Maltodextrin

Note: For simplicity, we’ll refer to the regular, digestible maltodextrin simply as “maltodextrin” in the rest of this article while digestion-resistant maltodextrin will be referred to as “resistant maltodextrin”.

It is clear that maltodextrin and resistant maltodextrin only sound similar. However, these two sugars are completely different when it comes to their benefits and risks. When their main effects are broken down, this becomes obvious.

The health benefits of maltodextrin versus resistant maltodextrin [5, 20, 21, 22, 13, 23, 1, 5, 15, 16]:

Resistant Maltodextrin vs Maltodextrin Health Benefits

The health risks of maltodextrin versus resistant maltodextrin [24, 25, 26, 27, 1, 28]:

Resistant Maltodextrin vs Maltodextrin Health Risks

From the images above, it is evident that maltodextrin is far more dangerous. Its health benefits generally don’t outweigh its risks. Resistant maltodextrin, on the other hand, is a great choice of resistant starch that offers many health benefits and poses very few risks.

Digestible Maltodextrin

Health Benefits

Maltodextrin still has some advantages, especially in healthy athletes or when given as a fluid before surgery. The body has an increased need for sugar such circumstances of high energy demands. Maltodextrin enhances physical performance, endurance, and post-exercise recovery, as it [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 22]:

  • Provides a good source of energy
  • Increases glycogen and glucose levels, which decrease fatigue
  • Triggers areas of the brain associated with reward
  • Reduces gut discomfort during intense exercise
  • Lowers inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-6 )
  • Increases an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10)

Maltodextrin promotes wound healing and improves recovery after surgery, as it [23, 36, 3738, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43]:

  • Boosts compounds essential for repairing damaged tissue (TGF-b). On the downside, their excess levels increase inflammation.
  • Increases collagen and cells that help repair and rebuild connective tissue (fibroblasts)
  • Maintains muscle function

In isolation, maltodextrin may improve cognitive skills by activating areas of the brain associated with reward, which increases performance. However, maltodextrin also increases the risk of insulin resistance and autoimmune reactions – all of which can be the underlying cause of brain fog and cognitive dysfunction. When the effects are added up, maltodextrin will more likely worsen your brain health [44, 45, 46].

To do maltodextrin justice, all its researched health benefits are summarized in this section. They mostly concern athletes, people exercising under stressful conditions (such as at very high altitude), and post-surgical recovery. Maltodextrin was given as part of a standardized formulation, which differs from its use as a food additive.

1) Increases Physical Performance and Endurance

Glycogen is a complex sugar that stores energy in the body. Increased glycogen breakdown and low blood glucose levels can cause fatigue during exercise. Most exercise enthusiasts know that carbohydrate intake before or during exercise increases glycogen and glucose levels, which boosts energy levels and endurance [29, 30, 31, 32].

Carbohydrates also reduce gut discomfort and activate reward areas of the brain, which enhances performance [33, 35, 34].

Maltodextrin can be used alone or in combination with simple sugars to improve physical performance and endurance. In several clinical studies with over 140 cyclists, maltodextrin together with fructose improved cycling performance times and reduced fatigue [20, 21, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 35].

In clinical studies with over 110 recreational athletes, maltodextrin alone or combined with fructose or MCTs (medium-chain triglycerides), increased fat breakdown, performance, and endurance [59, 60, 61, 62, 63].

Maltodextrin is usually added to sports drinks. Using maltodextrin mouth rinses is a less effective alternative. In one study, a mouth rinse with maltodextrin did not affect the performance of 9 cyclists [64].

2) May Boost Your Brain during Exercise

In a clinical study on 24 people, a mouth rinse with maltodextrin, caffeine, and guarana enhanced cognitive control, speed, accuracy, and time perception during exercise. However, caffeine may be responsible for the observed cognitive boost. In a clinical study on 10 people, caffeine and not maltodextrin increased cognitive performance and brain activity [44, 65].

In 9 fatigued fencers, mouth rinsing with maltodextrin increased fencing accuracy [46].

In piglets, a milk formula with maltodextrin increased cognitive performance better than the milk sugar lactose [66].

3) May Fight Inflammation

In a clinical study on 15 people who exercised at high altitude, maltodextrin reduced inflammation by lowering TNF-a (an inflammatory cytokine) and increasing the anti-inflammatory IL-10 [22].

In mice with colorectal cancer, maltodextrin with curcumin, Boswellia, and silymarin reduced TNF-a and other inflammatory substances (such as IL-6) [67].

4) Improves Recovery after Surgery

Carbohydrate fluids, such as maltodextrin, given two hours before surgery may reduce insulin resistance while preserving the muscles and glucose levels. These protocols can reduce complications after surgery and decrease the length of stay, enhancing recovery [40].

In clinical studies on 140 women undergoing surgical removal of the gallbladder, maltodextrin supported the respiratory muscles, increased handgrip strength, decreased insulin resistance, and reduced inflammation compared to the placebo [41, 42].

In a clinical study on 22 people undergoing stomach surgery due to cancer, maltodextrin prior to the surgery decreased the length of stay and inflammation compared to placebo [43].

5) Promotes Wound Healing

Cells need signals from cytokines and an adequate matrix to regenerate. TGF-beta 1 is a cytokine that supports tissue repair by stimulating the production of matrix proteins and new blood vessels. At the same time, connective tissue cells make collagen, which is essential for proper wound healing [38, 39, 68, 69].

Maltodextrin can be formulated into gels or powders that can be applied on the skin.

In cell studies, maltodextrin increased collagen, TGF-beta 1, and the number of connective tissue cells that promote wound healing [23, 36, 70, 37].

In a clinical study on 21 people, powder with maltodextrin and vitamin C (Multidex) applied to wounds sped up the healing process better than zinc oxide [23].

In a clinical study on 11 children with neck surgery wounds, maltodextrin gel together with a silver alginate sponge sped up wound healing [71].

Dangers

Maltodextrin activates several disease-promoting pathways in the body. For one, it increases diabetes risk. Being an easily-digestible sugar, maltodextrin acts to [72, 25, 73, 74, 75].

  • Spike blood sugar and insulin levels
  • Reduce the levels of an important hormone that helps lower blood sugar (GLP-1).

What’s more, this food additive has other mechanisms for triggering a state of disease in the body. Maltodextrin may worsen:

  • IBD by feeding harmful gut bacteria and increasing their overgrowth (such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Salmonella spp) [76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84]
  • Infections and tooth decay by increasing inflammatory dental bacteria (Streptococcus gordonii) and other dangerous bacteria in the body (such as Streptococcus pyogenes) [85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 27, 91, 91].
  • Celiac disease, as it can be produced from wheat [1, 28]
  • Allergic and autoimmune reactions, as it is probably produced from genetically modified corn or rice that contains an allergy-triggering protein (Cry9C) [92, 93, 94, 95].

While maltodextrin may enhance exercise performance, its use as a food additive carries many dangers and increases the risk of chronic diseases. Most people are usually not even aware that they are consuming maltodextrin in the food they regularly consume. To stay on the safe side, be sure to check the ingredients section of food labels for maltodextrin content.

1) Increases Diabetes Risk

Carbohydrates with a high glycemic index, such as maltodextrin, can spike blood sugar levels and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes [96, 97, 1, 98].

Maltodextrin increases blood sugar levels and insulin release, which can cause insulin resistance in the long run [72].

In a clinical trial on 40 healthy people, maltodextrin increased blood sugar and insulin levels to a much greater extent than drinks with a low glycemic index drink (with isomaltulose or modified starch). Maltodextrin also decreased the levels of a hormone that helps lower blood sugar (GLP-1) [25, 73, 74, 75].

2) May Cause IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease and leads to diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, and severe stomach pain. Gut microbiome imbalances are a big trigger of IBD [99, 100, 26].

Maltodextrin may trigger or worsen gut microbiome imbalances. It increased the growth of harmful gut bacteria such as (cellular, pig and mouse studies) [26]:

  • Escherichia coli [76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81]
  • Enterococcus faecalis [82, 83]
  • Salmonella spp [84]

3) May Worsen Infections

In cells, maltodextrin increased the growth of bacteria that cause skin infections, throat inflammation, and kidney damage (Streptococcus pyogenes) [85, 86, 87, 88, 89].

4) Worsens Oral Health

Tooth decay or dental cavities are caused by a cluster of bacteria that form a plaque. Since maltodextrin is a sugar bacteria like to feed on, it can contribute to poor oral health [101, 102].

In rats, maltodextrin caused tooth decay. In a cell-based study, it increased the growth of bacteria responsible for dental inflammation and tooth decay (Streptococcus gordonii) [90, 27, 91, 91].

Maltodextrin may be less harmful for your teeth than regular sugar, which is also known as sucrose. For example, in a study of 10 people, maltodextrin caused smaller dental plaques than sucrose. Maltodextrin is still a big contributor to dental cavities, though. It’s best to avoid both regular table sugar and maltodextrin if you want to keep your teeth healthy [103].

5) May Worsen Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the small intestine upon gluten consumption. People with celiac disease should avoid gluten, which is commonly found in grains such as wheat, rye or barley [104, 105].

Maltodextrin is produced from rice, potato, corn or wheat, which means that people with celiac disease should avoid wheat maltodextrin [1, 28].

Some people may not react to wheat-derived maltodextrin, which depends on its gluten content. In a 24-week clinical study on 90 people with celiac disease, wheat maltodextrin did not cause any stomach or bowel irritations [106].

6) Maltodextrin in Genetically Modified Foods (GMOs)

Maltodextrin is a cheap filler or sweetener. The chances are high that it is produced from genetically modified corn or rice. Genetically modified corn may contain Cry9C, a protein that can trigger allergies. GMO corn with this protein provoked allergic reactions in a clinical trial on 28 people [92, 93, 94, 95].

Genetically modified foods increase the risk of allergies, pancreas, liver and kidney inflammation and even cancer. It’s unknown to what extent maltodextrin may contribute to the risk [107, 108, 93].

Resistant Maltodextrin

Mechanism of Action

Resistant maltodextrin enhances gut health by [19, 109, 110]:

  • Increasing the good gut bacteria
  • Improving stool weight, consistency, and bowel movements

Resistant maltodextrin prevents obesity, diabetes, and heart disease because it can [111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119]:

  • Reduce belly fat and body weight
  • Decrease food intake
  • Increase satiety hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY)
  • Lower the production of the “hunger” hormone (ghrelin)
  • Reduce blood sugar levels and insulin resistance
  • Block fat absorption and enhancing the elimination of dietary fats

It may also prevent cancer and enhance immune function by [120, 121, 115, 122, 123]:

  • Blocking the growth of cancer cells and tumors
  • Decreasing endotoxins, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers (TNF-a, IFN gamma, MDA)
  • Increasing protective antibodies and anti-inflammatory substances (IgA, butyrate, IL-10)

Health Benefits

1) Promotes Digestive Health

Resistant starches can do wonders for your gut health, especially if you are prone to gut microbiome imbalances. In several clinical studies with over 900 people, resistant maltodextrin increased the stool weight, stool consistency, and bowel movement frequency compared to placebo [19, 124, 125, 126, 122, 110].

In clinical studies with over 200 people, resistant maltodextrin enhanced the growth of good gut bacteria, including [19, 109, 124, 109, 127, 128]:

  • Bifidobacterium
  • Ruminococcus
  • Eubacterium
  • Lactobacillus
  • Lachnospiraceae
  • Bacteroides
  • Holdemania
  • Faecalibacterium

In a clinical trial on 32 people with constipation, resistant maltodextrin with inulin improved bowel movements and decreased straining and incomplete emptying [129].

In rats, resistant maltodextrin promoted the growth of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium) and decreased harmful gut bacteria (Clostridium perfringens). In piglets, resistant it prevented ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disorder [130, 131].

2) Prevents Diabetes

As a resistant starch, this type of maltodextrin will help keep your blood sugar level stable after meals. In a meta-analysis with over 900 people, resistant maltodextrin blocked the increase of blood sugar after meals (postprandial glycemia) [117].

In a 12-week clinical study on 60 overweight men, resistant maltodextrin decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. It increased a weight-loss protein called adiponectin that blocks glucose production. Adiponectin is also likely to be increased in people with lectin sensitivity [119].

In a clinical study on 55 women with type 2 diabetes, resistant maltodextrin lowered insulin resistance. In 13 people, resistant maltodextrin reduced insulin production after meals. It also reduced blood sugar levels in a 12-week clinical study on 30 people with metabolic syndrome [116, 132, 115].

In rats, RMD enhanced the GLP-1 (Glucagon-like-peptide 1) production, a hormone that lowers blood sugar and insulin levels [6, 133, 134].

3) Prevents Obesity

In several clinical studies with over 300 overweight people, resistant maltodextrin reduced body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat. In one 12-week clinical study on 30 people with metabolic syndrome, it decreased waist circumference and belly fat [111, 135, 115].

In clinical studies with over 160 overweight men, resistant maltodextrin decreased feelings of hunger, increased satiety, and reduced and food intake. In another study on 32 healthy people, it decreased levels of the “hunger” hormone (ghrelin), lowered feelings of hunger and improved satiety [111, 112, 113, 114].

In rats, resistant maltodextrin reduced body weight, belly fat, and suppressed excess food intake [136, 6, 130].

4) Lowers Blood Fats (Lipids)

In a 12-week clinical study on 60 overweight men, resistant maltodextrin increased HDL- cholesterol, lowered total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL- cholesterol, and triglycerides. Several other studies on both healthy people and those with metabolic syndrome confirmed its triglyceride-lowering benefits [119, 115, 132].

The same was found in rats, in which resistant maltodextrin blocked the increase of triglycerides after eating. In hamsters, RMD together with inulin increased HDL- cholesterol, reduced levels of all harmful fats, echoing the benefits observed in humans [132, 137].

5) Improves Immune Function

In a clinical study 55 women with diabetes type 2, resistant maltodextrin decreased a wide range of harmful immune markers, including endotoxins, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IFN gamma), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (a marker for oxidative stress). Resistant maltodextrin also increased IL-10 (Interleukin-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine [115, 122].

In mice, this resistant starch increased the production of IgA and butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid that enhances immune function and protects the gut [123].

6) May Enhance Mineral Absorption

We already know that resistant starch aids nutrient absorption and reduces the risk of nutrient deficiencies. Resistant maltodextrin can bring all the proven benefits of resistant starch on mineral and vitamin D levels. In rats, resistant maltodextrin improved the absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc – all essential minerals needed to maintain optimal health [138].

7) May Fight Cancer

In mice, resistant maltodextrin blocked the growth of breast and colon cancer cells and increased cancer cell death. In cell studies, it suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells. More research on its cancer-fighting potential is needed [120, 139, 121].

Side Effects

Maltodextrin

Common side effects of maltodextrin include [49, 11, 52, 58]:

  • Nausea
  • Stomach pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach fullness

Maltodextrin spikes blood sugar levels, so it not recommended for people with diabetes [1, 98, 72].

Maltodextrin may derive from wheat, so people with celiac disease should be cautious with its consumption [104, 105].

Resistant Maltodextrin

In human, animal, and cell studies, resistant maltodextrin was safe and highly unhazardous [140].

Common side effects are very mild and include [117, 13, 24, 126]:

  • Bloating
  • Gas
  • Stomach pain and fullness with high doses
  • Gurgling sounds
  • Diarrhea or watery stools

Limitations and Caveats

Maltodextrin (MD)

Most studies investigating the effects of maltodextrin are performed on animals and cells.

Furthermore, the few clinical trials that were carried out had a small number of participants, and in most of them, maltodextrin was only one component of the diet/therapy examined.

Further research on the benefits and side effects of maltodextrin is needed.

Resistant Maltodextrin (RMD)

There are sufficient clinical trials examining the effect of resistant maltodextrin on gut health and prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, the other health benefits are supported mainly by animal and cell studies, whereas the clinical studies only have a small number of participants.

Moreover, there is insufficient research on resistant maltodextrin health risks.

More research on the risk effects and health benefits of resistant maltodextrin should be encouraged.

Forms and Dosage

Maltodextrin (MD)

Maltodextrin comes in various forms of supplementation, including powder, gel form (for skin application) or tapioca [71, 48, 20, 1].

The dosage of maltodextrin powder used in sports beverages ranges from 0.3 to 1.7 gr, with the most common dosage being 0.6 gr [48, 21, 20, 49].

If maltodextrin is used as mouth rinsing, then 6.4gr maltodextrin are solved into 100 ml water and every mouth rinse should be 25ml [48].

Resistant Maltodextrin (RMD)

The dosage of resistant maltodextrin ranges from 9 gr to 60 gr per day [115, 19, 132, 109, 113, 126].

The maximum dosage for men should be 1 gr/kg body weight, whereas women can take 1.1 gr/kg body weight. Higher doses might cause diarrhea [24].

Maltodextrin Natural Alternatives

Although maltodextrin (digestible) is commonly used as a sweetener or food additive, it’s linked to too many side-effects and risks. Many healthy natural alternatives to maltodextrin exist, which we have summarized below.

Honey

Honey is a sweet liquid made from bees which collect nectar from flowers. It contains over 200 compounds, including amino acids, vitamins, minerals and enzymes, honey is a widely-used remedy for various diseases [141].

Raw honey has antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties [142, 143, 144, 145, 141].

Honey can also [142, 143, 141, 146]:

  • Boost energy
  • Speed wound healing
  • Protect the brain
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Improve cholesterol and triglyceride levels
  • Suppress coughs
  • Promote skin health

It’s the best natural sweetener in moderation!

Stevia

Stevia is a natural sweetener with zero calories. It is derived from a plant native to South America [147].

Stevia promotes health as it can [148, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153]:

  • Lower blood sugar levels
  • Reduce blood pressure and protect the heart
  • Fight cancer
  • Help with weight loss
  • Prevent fatty liver disease

However, some people are allergic to stevia. It may worsen allergies and cause swelling and itching in sensitive people.

Pectin

Pectin is a soluble fiber found in berries, apples, and other fruit, and it can act as a sweetener or as a filler in foods. Pectin has many health benefits, including [154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159]:

  • Promoting gut health by reducing constipation and diarrhea
  • Lowering cholesterol levels
  • Decreasing blood sugar levels
  • Reducing hunger and helping with weight loss

Guar Gum

Guar gum is a complex sugar (polysaccharide) made from legumes called guar beans. It is used as a food additive and a filler in many processed foods [160].

Guar gum can be beneficial to health, as it [161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168]:

  • Lowers blood sugar levels
  • Promotes digestion and improves bowel health
  • Reduces cholesterol levels
  • Helps with weight loss

However, guar gum also has some negative effects. We don’t recommend it over healthier alternatives like moderate amounts of raw honey.

User Experiences

People took digestible maltodextrin as a weight loss supplement, however very few users found it useful. Most users experienced health disturbances, such as:

  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Stomach pain
  • Strong headaches
  • Nervousness
  • Neck stiffness

About the Author

Anastasia Naoum

MS (Health Informatics)
Anastasia holds an MSc in Health Informatics from the Sheffield University, an MSc in Health Economics from the Erasmus University of Rotterdam and a BSc in Economics from the University of Macedonia.
Anastasia grew up in a medical environment, as both her parents are doctors and developed from a young age a passion for medicine and health. She has worked in several institutions and associations which promoted healthy living and sustainable healthcare systems. Currently, she is leading a green life, sailing with her boyfriend across Europe, living in their sailboat with the help of solar and wind power, minimizing CO2 production.

Click here to subscribe

RATE THIS ARTICLE

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars
(4 votes, average: 4.50 out of 5)
Loading...

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.