Huperzine A is an alkaloid extracted from a club moss called Huperzia serrata. Huperzine A has many neuroprotective and nootropic properties, including in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Read this post to learn more about huperzine A and its health benefits.
- How Huperzine A Works
- Pharmacokinetics of Huperzine A
- Health Benefits of Huperzine A
- Neuroprotective Effects of Huperzine A
- 1) Huperzine A Protects Against Toxic Organophosphates
- 2) Huperzine A Protects Neurons Against Glutamate Toxicity
- 3) Huperzine A Protects the Brain From Oxidative Damage
- 4) Huperzine A Helps With Recovering from Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury
- 5) Huperzine A Prevents and Treats Alzheimer’s Disease
- 6) Huperzine A Helps with Brain Damage from Severe Bacterial Infections (Sepsis)
- 7) Huperzine A Helps with Cognitive Symptoms from Depression
- 8) Huperzine A Helps with Epileptic Seizures
- 9) Huperzine Could be a Safe way to Treat Addiction
- 10) Huperzine A Promotes Liver Health
- 11) Huperzine A as a Nootropic
- 12) Huperzine A Promotes Growth of Neural Cells
- 13) Huperzine A Helps with Myasthenia Gravis
- Drug Interaction
- Side Effects
Huperzine A (HupA) is one of the alkaloids extracted from a club moss (Huperzia serrata).
It has demonstrated both memory enhancement and neuroprotective effects in animal and clinical trials (R).
There are two forms of Huperzine A, (+) and (-). The (-) form is found naturally in the Huperzia moss and is more potent than the (+) form.
How Huperzine A Works
Huperzine A Inhibits Enzyme that Breaks Down Acetylcholine
Huperzine A is a potent, reversible, and specific inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholine esterase, which breaks down acetylcholine, although Huperzine A also has other brain-supporting effects that do not involve acetylcholine esterase (R).
Huperzine A binds to AchE but its structure is not similar to that of acetylcholine.
Huperzine A Changes Neurotransmitter Levels
Huperzine A Increases Acetylcholine
Huperzine A increases acetylcholine levels in rat brain for up to 6 hour post administration (R).
The increase of acetylcholine seems to differ between different parts of rat brain, being maximal in 30 minutes in the hippocampus and 60 min in the frontal and prefrontal cortex, suggesting that it can support the function of diseases that specifically affect these parts of the brain (R, R2).
Huperzine A Increases Norepinephrine and Dopamine, but not Serotonin
Pharmacokinetics of Huperzine A
Huperzine Cross the Blood Brain Barrier
After injecting mice with 183 micrograms/kg Huperzine A, Huperzine A can be found throughout all regions of the brain, particularly in areas of the cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens (R). Therefore, huperzine A crossed the blood brain barrier and readily distributes in the brain.
Therefore, huperzine A crossed the blood brain barrier and readily penetrates the brain.
Huperzine is Readily Absorbed and Turned Over
In humans, oral huperzine A is absorbed quickly and distributed widely, and eliminated at a moderate rate (R).
In mice, huperzine A is highest in kidney and liver 15 minutes after injection. After 12 hours, no trace of huperzine A is found anywhere in the body (R).
Huperzine A Crosses the Placenta
In pregnant mice, a small amount of huperzine A is found in the fetus, suggesting that huperzine A crosses the placenta (R).
Most Huperzine A in the Body is Eliminated in the Urine
In mice, 73% of huperzine A is excreted in urine 24 hours post-injection, and only 2.4% is found in feces (R).
Dosage Studies in Humans
At a very high dose of 0.99 mg, a peak serum concentration is reached at 79 minutes. Half of huperzine A is found (half-life) at 288 minutes, suggesting that it may be necessary to dose huperzine A multiple times a day to achieve continuous effects (R).
No notable side effects were observed at doses between 0.18 – 0.54 mg in humans (R).
No tolerance from continued use has been reported from repeated use (R).
Another study found that huperzine A appears in the blood at 5 – 10 minutes after subjects ingest 0.4 mg of huperzine A. Huperzine A in the blood reaches concentration at around 58 minutes and 20 seconds, with 50% of it still present at 600 minutes (half life = 10 hours) and eliminated in 24 hours (R).
Health Benefits of Huperzine A
Neuroprotective Effects of Huperzine A
1) Huperzine A Protects Against Toxic Organophosphates
2) Huperzine A Protects Neurons Against Glutamate Toxicity
Glutamate is an amino acid neurotransmitter that can kill neuronal cell deaths by overstimulating the NMDA receptors, especially in more mature neurons.
3) Huperzine A Protects the Brain From Oxidative Damage
Huperzine A protects against oxidative damage from iron overload (R).
4) Huperzine A Helps With Recovering from Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury
Huperzine A, together with other brain-supporting substances (vinpocetine, acetyl-L-carnitine, n-acetyl cysteine, and alpha lipoic acid), multivitamin and fish oil, seem to help increase brain blood flow and improve cognitive functions in retired NFL football players with history of concussions (R).
Huperzine A aids in recovery from brain bleeding by preventing damage to the mitochondria and postponing cell death (R).
Huperzine A decreases apoptosis and improved neurological symptoms in rats with spinal cord trauma (R).
5) Huperzine A Prevents and Treats Alzheimer’s Disease
In a systematic review of different interventions for Alzheimer’s, aggregate data from multiple studies show that Huperzine A has the stronger (most statistically significant) effect in mitigating Alzheimer’s and cognitive decline than other interventions. However, the quality of these studies is lower than the quality of studies of other interventions (R).
Many of such studies are poorly controlled or were not designed to rule out biases from the authors. In addition, most of the studies and clinical trials were from China.
By decreasing the inflammatory response triggered by amyloid beta Huperzine A could stop apoptosis (R).
In some patients with Alzheimer’s Disease, a clinical trial has shown that Huperzine A improves mental ability and overall well-being (R).
Huperzine A significantly downregulate a target of NF-kB pathway in immune cells in the brain, suggesting that it reduces inflammation, which can help with Alzheimer’s (R).
6) Huperzine A Helps with Brain Damage from Severe Bacterial Infections (Sepsis)
In rats model of severe bacterial infection (sepsis), huperzine A protects the brain from damage by reducing inflammation and increasing functions of cholinergic neurons (R).
7) Huperzine A Helps with Cognitive Symptoms from Depression
8) Huperzine A Helps with Epileptic Seizures
In studies done on animals, Huperzine A was shown to protect brain cells from overexcitement and death associated with convulsions (R).
Huperzine A is an effective treatment of epilepsy in rats (R).
Huperzine A can make the tissue more resistant to seizures associated with various forms of epilepsy (R).
9) Huperzine Could be a Safe way to Treat Addiction
A study based on self-administration showed that Huperzine A decreased the individual’s perception of the effects of cocaine and could be a safe way to treat addiction (R).
10) Huperzine A Promotes Liver Health
Huperzine A protects liver cells that receive oxygen after a prolonged period of deoxygenation.
Through its role as a controller of signaling pathways that govern oxidation and cell death it can decrease the amount of damage caused to cells because of liver reoxygenation such as that which occurs during an organ transplant (R).
11) Huperzine A as a Nootropic
Huperzine A helps with memory in high school students, comparing to placebo (R).
Huperzine A helps with chemical-induced cognitive impairment in mice (R).
12) Huperzine A Promotes Growth of Neural Cells
Huperzine A can stimulate the growth of neuronal cells in a cell-based experiment, and of brain cells in the hippocampus of mice (R).
13) Huperzine A Helps with Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks acetylcholine receptors, and the treatments involve immunosuppressants and acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (R).
In one clinical study involving 128 patients, Huperzine A helps with muscle weakness in Myasthenia gravis patient (R).
Huperzine A is unlikely to interact with cytochrome P450.
For Alzheimer’s patients, a dosage of 0.4 mg twice daily was required to produce clinically significant results, as 0.2 mg twice daily did not (R).
Dosages of huperzine A in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s range from 0.2 mg to 0.8 mg (R).
In high school students who struggle with memory, 0.1 mg was sufficient to improve memory (R).
Reported adverse effects are very rare, but are cholinergic symptoms, such as dizziness, nausea, digestive upsets, headache, and decreased heart rate (R).
- HupA has strong preference against tetrameric AChE, and inhibits AchE by a non-covalent reversible interaction with the aromatic amino acids located in the catalytic gorge (R).
- The neuroprotective effect of Huperzine A occurs concurrently with a decrease in ROS and an increase in ATP (R).
- It is substantially excreted by kidney unchanged rather than metabolized by the human liver and is unlikely to cause clinically relevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) when co-administrated with drugs that are metabolized by CYP isoenzyme system (R).
- Huperzine A significantly down-regulated p65 expression induced by Aβ in astrocytes (R).
- Huperzine A can regulate NF-κB pathway to treat Alzheimer’s Disease (R).
- It provides protection from excitotoxicity and neuronal death as well as an increase in GABAergic transmission associated with an anticonvulsant activity (R).
- Huperzine A inhibits cell apoptosis through restraining microglia’s inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42 (R).
- HA treatment decreased mitochondrial injury and apoptosis, inhibited caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation, and improved behavioral recovery (R).
- Muscarinic and GABA receptors play a role in Huperzine A-mediated seizure protection (R).
- Huperzine A might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for increasing seizure resistance in DS and GEFS+, and more broadly, in other forms of refractory epilepsy (R).
- Huperzine A attenuates the HI/R injury of rats through its anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic signaling pathways (R).
- Huperzine A inhibits NF-kB activation, which attenuates nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase -2 and nitric oxide over-expression by indirectly activating a type of acetylcholine receptors called α7nAChRs (R).
- ZT-1 is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed into HupA.
- Huperzine A stimulates nerve growth factor secretion and signaling (R).