- Is Lithium The Drug Different Than The “Natural” Forms?
- My Experience
- The Lithium That I Use
- The Health Benefits of Lithium
- 1) Lithium is Neuroprotective
- 2) Lithium Inhibits Apoptosis
- 3) Lithium Increases Neurotrophic Factors BDNF, NGF, and GDNF
- 4) Lithium Helps Remodel The Brain and Heart (VEGF)
- 5) Lithium Induces Autophagy
- 6) Lithium Increases Neurogenesis and Improves Cognitive Function
- 7) Lithium Can Calm and Stabilize Mood
- 8) Lithium Combats Depression
- 9) Lithium May Be a Potential Treatment for Huntington’s Disease
- 10) Lithium Decreases Insulin Resistance
- 11) Lithium Reduces Autoimmunity and Inflammation
- 12) Lithium Supports Bone Health
- 13) Lithium Can Helps Entrain Our Circadian Rhythm
- 14) Lithium Improves Mitochondrial Function
- 15) Low Dose Lithium Increases Longevity
- 16) Lithium May Improve Symptoms of Tourette’s Syndrome
- 17) Lithium May Help with Tardive Dyskinesia
- 18) Lithium Helps with Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors
- 19) Lithium May Relieve Headache
- 20) Lithium May Be Effective in Anorexia Nervosa
- 21) Lithium May Be Effective for Treating Alcoholism
- 22) Lithium May Reduce Seizures
- 23) Lithium May Relieve Symptoms of Meniere’s Disease
- Genetic Factors that Affect Responses to Lithium
- Potential Risks/Negatives
- Lithium Deficiency
- Lithium Drug Interactions
- Dietary Sources of Lithium
- Buying Lithium
Is Lithium The Drug Different Than The “Natural” Forms?
There’s a lot of misinformation about lithium. A lot of mainstream sources (WebMD, for instance) seem to suggest that lithium prescribed as a treatment for depression or bipolar disorder (as carbonate or chloride salts and in higher doses) work differently than over the counter lithium orotate.
All the research I’ve seen talk about the ion lithium, which would make the type of lithium salt, not that relevant except for how bioavailable it is and how capable it is in crossing the brain barrier.
Some people say that the over the counter version – lithium orotate – passes the brain barrier much more efficiently than the other versions.
Even assuming the possibility of some differences in dosage, studies about one form of lithium can very likely be generalized to others.
The usual dosage taken is 5 mg, but I decided to take 15 mg to see what would happen. I can say that there’s definitely a subtle cognitive effect. It’s definitely got an anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effect and it seemed to lengthen the period of my circadian rhythm, as I started to feel tired later on.
On the negative side, it made more zoned out. It also made me feel less attached to everything. The fact that I felt acute effects at 15mg suggests me that lithium orotate passes the brain barrier efficiently, perhaps even more so since a much higher dosage of lithium carbonate is standardly used.
Anyway, I’m glad I did the experiment so that I now know lithium orotate is definitely having an effect and I can use it in my coaching practice.
This suggests that at least some of the benefits of other lithium salts prescribed by doctors can be achieved through the orotate version commonly sold.
The Lithium That I Use
Lithium is an alkali metal, naturally present in trace amounts in minerals, water, soil, and in fruits, vegetables and other plants grown in lithium-rich soil (R).
Lithium plays a role in proper function of several enzymes, hormones, vitamins, growth factors, and immune and nervous system (R).
Aside from helping patients with mental health issues, lithium has a wide and ever-growing list of health benefits.
The Health Benefits of Lithium
1) Lithium is Neuroprotective
Chronic lithium treatment was found to robustly reduce glutamate-induced excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-D-asparatate (NMDA) receptors. This effect was at least partly due to lithium’s ability to inhibit the influx of calcium, which mediates NMDA receptor activity. (R)
Therefore, lithium can help mood disorders, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (R).
2) Lithium Inhibits Apoptosis
3) Lithium Increases Neurotrophic Factors BDNF, NGF, and GDNF
Lithium also increases Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, occipital cortex and striatum (R). NGF and GDNF help increase neuronal survival and plasticity (the ability to regenerate and form new connections) of dopaminergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system.
4) Lithium Helps Remodel The Brain and Heart (VEGF)
5) Lithium Induces Autophagy
Autophagy or “cellular self-eating” is when the cells degrade and recycle cellular components to reuse the raw materials (R). It is considered anti-aging, cancer-preventing, and important for neuronal function and survival (R, R2).
Because lithium induces autophagy, it may be particularly helpful for neurodegenerative disorders – Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS and Huntington’s because these disorders are, in part, characterized by the accumulation of misfolded disease-causing proteins (R).
6) Lithium Increases Neurogenesis and Improves Cognitive Function
Lithium was found to stimulate progenitor and stem cells in cultured brain hippocampal neurons (neurons from the memory center). In addition, lithium prevents the loss of proliferation induced by glutamate or cortisol (glucocorticoids). Long-term lithium treatment then promotes the conversion of these progenitor cells into neurons. (R)
In addition, chronic lithium treatment not only enhances neurogenesis in the hippocampus (memory center) of normal mice but also restores neurogenesis in the brain in an animal model of Down’s syndrome (R).
It also increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, the only other place except for the hippocampus (memory center) that it’s been found to occur, causing a sustained increase in gray matter volume in patients (R).
Lithium increases N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) (R), which may be a marker of creativity and is correlated with IQ scores (R). One probable effect is more efficient communication between two sides of the brain, which enhances intellectual performance. (R)
Chronic lithium treatment increases long-term potentiation (LTP) in neurons of the hippocampus, which makes the nerve cells more efficient, and thus helps with learning and memory (R).
7) Lithium Can Calm and Stabilize Mood
In animals, lithium consistently decreases exploratory activity and aggression. (R)
Lithium is known to have a calming and mood stabilizing effect in people as well and is used to treat depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia (R).
Lithium was also shown to be effective for aggressive behavior in people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (R).
The presence of higher than normal levels of naturally occurring lithium in drinking water supplies may reduce suicide rates (R). Part of the explanation could be because lithium increases serotonin synthesis and release (it also decreases norepinephrine) (R).
Lithium increases CCK in the brain and this is part of the mechanism by which lithium prevents mania in bipolar.
8) Lithium Combats Depression
Lithium is one of the best-studied strategies for treatment-resistant depression (R).
Lithium ameliorates depression in animals, in part, by increasing neural stem cells.
9) Lithium May Be a Potential Treatment for Huntington’s Disease
Lithium decreases excessive NMDA receptor function which could potentially counteract increased activation of NMDA receptors that occurs in the brain of patients with Huntington’s disease (R).
Further studies need to be conducted in patients with Huntington’s disease.
10) Lithium Decreases Insulin Resistance
Administration of lithium significantly increased glucose transport into muscle cells in response to insulin by 2.5 fold, and also increased insulin responsiveness (R).
11) Lithium Reduces Autoimmunity and Inflammation
However, studies indicate that under certain experimental conditions lithium also has pro-inflammatory effects by increasing production of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α (R).
Lithium increases the production of IgG and IgM antibodies (R).
Lithium decreases the production and activity of prostanglandins, thus preventing its negative effect on the immune system (R).
12) Lithium Supports Bone Health
A study assessed bone mineral density at the hip and lumbar spine in 75 lithium-treated outpatients and 75 normal subjects matched for age, sex, and body mass index. The study found a lower bone turnover state in those receiving lithium. The mean bone density in lithium-treated patients was 4.5% higher at the spine, 5.3% higher at the femoral neck and 7.5% higher at the trochanter (R).
13) Lithium Can Helps Entrain Our Circadian Rhythm
Lithium is the drug of choice for treating patients suffering from bipolar disorder, which is characterized by the presence of mania and depression (R).
Lithium helps entrain our circadian rhythm more quickly in response to light and darkness (R).
14) Lithium Improves Mitochondrial Function
Lithium treatment of worms increased lifespan and improved markers of health, including mitochondrial energy output (R).
Lithium may improve mitochondrial function by increasing the turnover of dysfunctional mitochondria (R).
15) Low Dose Lithium Increases Longevity
Researchers have found a positive correlation between lifespan and drinking-water lithium levels. There was a decreased risk for all causes of death in Japanese neighborhoods with higher lithium levels.
This is also the case in worms. Long-term low-dose exposure to lithium may exert anti-aging capabilities and unambiguously decreases mortality in evolutionary distinct species” (R). The improvements in health were accompanied by improved mitochondrial function. (R)
16) Lithium May Improve Symptoms of Tourette’s Syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological disorder, characterized by involuntary muscle movements and uncontrollable vocal sounds (R).
In a small study involving 3 patients, lithium had a better outcome than haloperidol, a commonly-prescribed drug for Tourette’s. Patients who were taking lithium experienced a significant decrease in the number of tics and involuntary vocal sounds. Patients experienced no side effects, and were symptoms free months later (R).
17) Lithium May Help with Tardive Dyskinesia
Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary sudden, jerky movements of the face and/or body caused by the long-term use of antipsychotic drugs (R).
18) Lithium Helps with Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder characterized by obsessive thoughts and behaviors (R).
Lithium supplementation is associated with a decrease in symptoms of OCD that are resistant to standard therapy (R).
Compulsive and pathological gamblers also had a good response to lithium supplementation, possibly by regulating dopamine imbalances in the brain (R).
19) Lithium May Relieve Headache
Lithium may reduce the severity of both chronic and episodic cluster headache (R).
20) Lithium May Be Effective in Anorexia Nervosa
One patient gained 12 kg and the other 9 kg within 6 weeks, and the weight gain was maintained for a year with lithium therapy (R).
However, further studies with lithium are needed to assess its usefulness in anorexia nervosa.
21) Lithium May Be Effective for Treating Alcoholism
Lithium orotate is useful in the treatment of alcoholism.
It was safe, and the side effects were minor such as muscle weakness, loss of appetite, or mild apathy (R).
Patients treated with lithium were much less likely to be rehospitalized for alcoholism rehabilitation during the 18-month follow-up (R).
22) Lithium May Reduce Seizures
The effect of lithium on seizure disorders is still controversial (R).
Some epileptic patients show a statistically significant decrease in seizures frequency as well as improved behavior when treated with lithium (R).
It may be useful in the control of treatment-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (R).
23) Lithium May Relieve Symptoms of Meniere’s Disease
Meniere’s disease is a disorder of the ear that causes severe dizziness, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the ear (R).
70% of patients with Meniere’s disease experienced less frequent and severe attacks when on lithium treatment (R).
However, a study with patients given 6 months of lithium and 6 months of placebo showed no difference between the two treatments (R).
- Lithium decreases brain inositol (R).
- Lithium increases vasopressin, which stimulates ACTH and cortisol (R).
Genetic Factors that Affect Responses to Lithium
5-HTTLPR (SLC6A4) Serotonin Transporter
Subjects with 2 copies of the short form of this gene show a worse response to lithium than those with the long form (R).
Relevant snps: The presence of rs25531 (not in 23andme) may indicate the long form.
The C allele is associated with better response to antidepressants with lithium augmentation (R).
Lithium has numerous side effects and can be toxic at high doses.
The severity of symptoms is generally proportional to the degree of elevation of blood lithium levels (R).
Most Common Side Effects of Lithium
The most common side effects of lithium therapy include (R):
- lethargy and fatigue. This may be a result of a significant reduction in orexin-producing cells and through reducing thyroid function.
- hand tremors
- muscle weakness
Symptoms of Moderate Lithium Toxicity
Moderate toxicity (serum lithium concentration =2.0 – 2.5 mmol/L) is characterized by (R)
- muscle twitches
- ECG changes (flat or inverted T waves)
Symptoms of Severe Lithium Toxicity
Symptoms of severe toxicity (serum lithium concentration> 2.5 mmol/L) include (R):
- impaired consciousness
- kidney insufficiency
- coma and death
Lithium May Lower Thyroid Function
Hyperthyroidism occurs rarely, and it is characterized by transient and painless inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis) due to a possible toxic effect of lithium on the thyroid gland (R, R2, R3).
Lithium induces thyroid autoimmunity by increasing B cell activity and decreasing ratios of suppressor to cytotoxic T cells (R). As a result, 20% of lithium-treated patients have thyroid auto-antibodies.
Lithium may also be useful in combination with radioactive iodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer (R).
Other Negative Effects of Lithium
- Lithium is a competitive inhibitor of magnesium, which is part of its mechanism of action (R).
- Lithium may increase inflammation in the intestines- IL-8 (R) and Nf-kB (R). If you have colitis or Crohn’s I would not take this. Colitis is caused in part by IL-8 and this increases IL-8 (R).
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding: lithium can be toxic to a developing baby and increase the risk of birth defects. It can enter breast milk and cause side effects in a nursing infant
- Heart disease: lithium should be carefully used in patients with preexisting heart disease because it may cause irregular heart rhythms
- Kidney disease: lithium removal from the body by the kidneys is decreased in patients with kidney disease, and the risk of lithium intoxication increases considerably in this setting
- Thyroid disease: lithium may make thyroid problems worse
Lithium deficiency caused by low dietary intakes, or due to certain diseases (kidney disease especially in dialysis patients) is unlikely to happen in humans.
If deficiency occurs, symptoms are mild and manifest primarily as behavioral problems (R).
Lithium Drug Interactions
Both antidepressant drugs (such as Prozac®, Zoloft®, Elavil®, Anafranil®, Tofranil®) and lithium increase serotonin. Taking lithium with these medications could cause serious side effects such as heart problems, shivering, and anxiety (R, R2).
In patients treated with both lithium and an antipsychotic (haloperidol, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, clozapine and risperidone), toxicity to the brain ranges from extrapyramidal symptoms (continuous muscle spasms or jerky movements) to neuroleptic malignant syndrome (R, R2, R3, R4).
Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors- Capoten®, Vasotec®, Prinivil®; calcium channel blockers- Adalat®, Calan®, Cardizem®, DynaCirc®) can increase lithium levels in the body thus increase its side effects (R, R2, R3, R4).
Taking lithium along with dextromethorphan (Robitussin DM®), meperidine (Demerol®), or tramadol (Ultram®) may increase serotonin in the brain, and cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering and anxiety (R, R2).
Acetazolamide, theophylline, sodium bicarbonate can lower blood lithium concentrations by increasing lithium excretion in urine (R).
Dietary Sources of Lithium
Primary dietary sources of lithium are grains and vegetables, which may contribute from 66% to more than 90% of the total lithium intake (R).
Cacao, oats, seafood (shrimp, lobster, oysters and scallops), seaweed, beef liver, goji berries, various fruits and vegetables (depending on the soil in which they are grown) and egg yolks are significant sources of lithium (R).
I generally go for lithium orotate, but lithium aspartate is also fine.
If you’re completely healthy, I recommend 1-2 mg a day in the long term. There is an association with low doses of lithium (1-2mg) and longevity (R).
However, I wouldn’t expect to feel anything at that dosage. I’ve been taking 1mg for quite a few months, with no noticeable effect. I’ve recently upped it to 5mg.
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