Astragalus has a long history in Chinese medicine. It is still being used there for Hepatitis and as an adjunctive therapy for Cancer. Today in the western world its been rediscovered as a “super herb”. This article gives a detail of the various beneficial aspects of this “super herb”.
- My Experience With Astragalus
- Traditional Indications
- 23 Science Based Health Benefits of Astragalus
- 1) Astragalus is an Antioxidant
- 2) Astragalus is an Anti-inflammatory
- 3) Astragalus Boosts the Enzyme Telomerase
- 4) Astragalus Helps Protect the Heart
- 5) Astragalus Activates the Immune cells
- 6) Astragalus Reduces the Side Effects of Chemotherapy and May Help Prevent Cancer
- 7) Astragalus Helps Prevent Infections
- 8) Astragalus is Effective in Wound Healing
- 9) Astragalus Combats Stress
- 10) Astragalus Helps Prevent Respiratory Problems
- 11) Astragalus Helps Prevent Diabetes
- 12) Astragalus is an Anticonvulsant
- 13) Astragalus is Neuroprotective and Prevents Memory Loss
- 14) Astragalus Improves Kidney Function
- 15) Astragalus May Improve Male Fertility
- 16) Astragalus Helps Protect the Intestine
- 17) Astragalus Helps Muscle Function and Enhances Exercise Endurance Capacity
- 18) Astragalus Helps Bone Function
- 19) Astragalus Protects the Liver
- 20) Astragalus Reduces Fatigue
- 21) Astragalus Helps Treat Anemia and Other Blood Disorders
- 22) Astragalus is an Anti-fibrotic
- 23) Astragalus Reduces Iron Overload
- Astragalus Synergies
- Buying & Dosage
- Safety and Cautions
- Potentially Active Chemical Constituents
- Molecular Targets
Astragalus is a large genus of around 3000 species belonging to the legume family Fabaceae. This plant is a native to the temperate regions in Northern hemisphere. Common names include milk vetch (most species), locoweed (some species in North america) and goat’s thorn. Astragalus root is a staple of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), where it is also known as Huang Qi.
It is also used as a “Qi tonifier” in the oriental system of medicine (R).
Most Astragalus supplements contain Astragalus membranaceus and are marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use (R).
Root is the only part of the plant used medicinally and is usually harvested from 4-year old plants. Herbalists call astragalus an “adaptogen”.
My Experience With Astragalus
Astragalus is potent Th1 and immune stimulant. It improves blood flow to the brain and the rest of the body. It is not advised if you have an overactive immune system already. I used to take it at night because it made me tired, but I don’t do that anymore.
Most people with CFS and chronic inflammation will not do well with astragalus. If you do well on it will depend on if you have chronic inflammation because of a chronic infection or because you’re getting it from food, for example.
If you’re suffering from immunodeficiency or cancer, then this is the right herb for you.
Below, I give a bunch of different good options to buy Astragalus, but some people want to to know which one I recommend.
Other traditional indications include wasting disorders (process in which a disease causes muscle and fat tissue to “waste” away), night sweats, chronic ulcerations and sores, numbness and paralysis of the limbs and edema (R).
Astragalus is also traditionally used as an antidiarrheal or a laxative.
23 Science Based Health Benefits of Astragalus
1) Astragalus is an Antioxidant
Astragalus treatment in 43 patients with acute heart attack reduced blood cell free radicals, blood fat peroxidation and increased superoxide dismutase levels.
Astragalus extract protects rat heart mitochondria against fat peroxidation.
2) Astragalus is an Anti-inflammatory
Both oral and colonic Astragalus (A. membranaceus) treatments exhibited significant protection against DNBS (2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid)-induced colitis (inflammation of the inner lining of colon) in rats (R).
3) Astragalus Boosts the Enzyme Telomerase
TA-65Ⓡ is a natural telomerase activator purified from the root of Astragalus. Use of this natural product in animals showed a decline in percent senescent cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells (R).
In the absence of telomerase, telomeres shorten with time and stress, contributing to aging and disease.
Isomers extracted from Astragalus slowed down telomere shortening rate, reduced DNA damage and improved DNA repair ability (various factors which are responsible for the delay in aging) (R).
4) Astragalus Helps Protect the Heart
Intravenous injection of Astragalus increased the total effective heart function rate by 74.2% in patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) (R).
In another study Astragalus (Astragaloside IV) injected into 19 patients with Congestive heart failure reduced symptoms of chest distress and dyspnea (shortness of breath) in 15 of 19 patients (R). There was also a significant improvement in left heart activity, end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume (R).
92 patients with Ischemic heart disease treated with Astragalus, had a significant relief from angina (chest pain) and also an improvement in the effective rate of EKG (Electrocardiogram) by 82.6%. In another study on angina pectoris, 20 patients given Astragalus for two weeks had an increase in the heart output (R).
Astragalus (A.membranaceus injection) combined with conventional treatment appeared to be more effective in the treatment of viral heart inflammation (R).
Research in animals/in lab:
Astragalus decreased free radical release and apoptosis in cultured heart muscle cells and was therefore protective against daunorubicin toxicity (R).
Astragalus (Astragaloside) improved post-ischemic heart function and reduced reperfusion arrhythmias in rat hearts. There was also an increase in blood flow into the heart muscle (R).
Astragalus (A. mongholicus) given to rats with high lipids resulted in a significant decline in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in blood. It is thereby likely to reduce heart diseases associated with high lipid content and oxidative stress (R).
Astragalus can improve endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats (R).
Note: In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels).
5) Astragalus Activates the Immune cells
In one study 8 grams of Astragalus given orally to 14 healthy volunteers for 2 months significantly increased interferon-inducing ability of blood cells. In another study Astragalus extract given to healthy adults for 20 days increased blood IgM, IgE and cAMP (R).
Viral heart inflammation patients when given an extract of Astragalus orally showed enhanced T3, T4 and T4/T3 cell ratios suggesting an increased immune response (R).
Research in animals/in lab:
Astragalus (Astragalus polysaccharides) activated B cells and macrophages in mouse and human tumor cell lines (R).
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a potent adjuvant for the hepatitis B subunit vaccine and can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses (R).
Astragalus has been shown to have immunologic benefits by stimulating macrophage and natural killer cell activity and inhibiting T-helper cell type 2 cytokines (R).
6) Astragalus Reduces the Side Effects of Chemotherapy and May Help Prevent Cancer
Astragalus based chinese herbal medicine combined with platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival, increases tumor response, improves performance status, or reduces chemotherapy toxicity in cancer patients (R).
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) could enhance the immune function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), promote production and maturation of pDCs in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients (R).
Treatment of Astragalus integrated with vinorelbine and cisplatin (VC) had significantly improved Quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (R).
Research in animals/in lab:
Astragalus induced apoptosis of liver tumor cells and had a significant anti-tumor effect on liver cell carcinoma (R).
Astragalus saponins (AST) promoted apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft without any side effects that were produced by the conventional chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (R).
Astragalus injection suppressed apoptosis of mesothelial cells (R). Total Astragalus saponins also inhibited human stomach cancer cell growth, decreased the invasion ability and induced the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells (R).
Astragalus saponins (AST) inhibit cell proliferation through accumulation in S phase and G2/M arrest with concomitant suppression of p21 production and inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity (R).
7) Astragalus Helps Prevent Infections
Astragalus (A.membranaceus) helps in treating recurrent tonsillitis in children (R).
Astragalus is used as an immune stimulant in treating and preventing cold and upper respiratory tract infections (R).
A herbal mixture containing Astragalus given daily in conjunction with interferon to adults with chronic bronchitis reduced the incidence and duration of Upper Respiratory Tract infections (URTIs).
Astragalus polysaccharide had immunomodulatory effects on cells exposed to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Classical Swine fever virus (CSFV) (R).
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) treatment reduces H9N2 Avian Influenza virus replication and promotes early humoral immune response in young chickens. In china, APS is widely used as an immune adjuvant (R).
Astragalus (A.membranaceus) has an inhibitory effect on herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) (R).
Astragalus inhibited viral replication, while improving abnormal electric activity in the heart muscle tissue of mice infected with coxsackie B-3 virus (R).
Astragalus (Astragaloside IV) possessed anti-HAdV-3 (human adenovirus type-3) capabilities. It inhibited HAdV-3 replication and HAdV-3 induced apoptosis (R).
Animal studies demonstrated oral administration of Astragalus root extract to mice infected with japanese encephalitis virus increased survival rate by 30-40% (R).
Sulfated Astragalus polysaccharide (sAPS) had activity against the cellular infectivity of infectious bursal disease virus, and the sulfated modification enhanced its antiviral activity (R).
Astragalus polysaccharide has an inhibitory effect on the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (R).
Astragalus had shown antibacterial activity against Shigella dysenteriae, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Diplococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus (R).
Astragalus showed a significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton verrucosumin guinea pig model of dermatophytosis (R).
Astragalus (A.baibutensis) showed a remarkable antitrypanosomal activity against T. brucei rhodisience and T.cruzi . However, it exhibits some cellular toxicity on mammalian cells (R).
8) Astragalus is Effective in Wound Healing
Topical application of Astragalus (gum tragacanth) has useful effects in the acceleration of skin wound contraction and healing (R).
Astragalus (astragaloside IV) decreased Catenin beta-1 (protein that coordinates cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription) to increase skin cell (keratinocyte) migration and proliferation, hence it could promote ulcerated wound healing in cultured mouse keratinocytes (R).
Astragalus (Astragaloside IV) has shown to be a promising natural product with both healing and anti-scar effects for wound treatment. This findings suggest the use of Astragaloside IV in the treatment of injury (R).
Mechanism: astragalus mediated keratinocyte proliferation and migration via regulation of the Wnt signalling pathway (R).
9) Astragalus Combats Stress
Astragalus (Astragaloside IV) may reduce immobilized stress-induced anxiety and inflammation in mice (R).
Astragalus (Astragaloside IV) and cycloastragenol suppressed ROS-associated Endoplasmic reticulum stress (R).
10) Astragalus Helps Prevent Respiratory Problems
Astragalus played a role in preventing the recurrence of asthma in children. A combination of astragalus and hormones showed better effects (R).
Astragalus granules may reduce the incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) in children with nephrotic syndrome (R).
11) Astragalus Helps Prevent Diabetes
Astragalus could effectively control blood glucose, reduce the free radicals, and promote the antioxidative activity and may play a role in the treatment of gestational diabetes in pregnant women (R).
Zhang et.al showed that Astragalus improved fasting blood glucose levels, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary albumin rate and thickness of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetic rat models (R).
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) can increase pancreatic beta cell mass in type 1 diabetic mice strongly associated with an improved autoimmunity (R).
12) Astragalus is an Anticonvulsant
Mechanism: Anticonvulsant effects may be mediated by its protective actions against oxidative damage and improving mitochondrial dysfunction (R).
13) Astragalus is Neuroprotective and Prevents Memory Loss
Extract of Astragalus had protective effects on DEX (dexamethasone)-induced neuron injury mouse model (R).
14) Astragalus Improves Kidney Function
High-dose Astragalus injection used together with cyclophosphamide (CTX) is effective in decreasing infection rate and urine protein and improving immune function for patients with lupus nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys) (R).
Astragalus injection improved kidney tubule function in patients with IgA nephropathy (disease which occurs when the antibody Immunoglobulin A lodges in the kidney) (R).
Research in animals/in lab:
One study showed that Astragalus (Astragalus polysaccharide) improved proteinuria (abnormal quantities of protein in the urine) and kidney function in animals (R).
An intravenous dose of Astragalus inhibited UUO (Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction)-induced kidney scarring of tissue and function in a rat kidney injury model (R).
Astragalus proved effective against experimentally induced glomerulonephritis in rats, especially in treating proteinuria. Rats fed with Astragalus had less proteinuria (R).
Astragalus injection has a protective effect on cisplatin (DDP)-induced kidney toxicity in mice (R).
15) Astragalus May Improve Male Fertility
Astragalus demonstrated a significant stimulatory effect and increased the motility of human sperms in lab (R).
Astragalus (A.membranaceus) has beneficial influences and appears able to improve relative testes weight, sperm parameters and cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) (a the gene initiating protein that is found in male germ cells) expression against CP-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice (R).
Astragalus could significantly reduce the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, decrease the level of fat peroxidation and protect glutathione activity in the torsional testis (R).
16) Astragalus Helps Protect the Intestine
Astragalus (A.membranaceus) could strengthen the movement and muscle tonus in the intestine (R).
High dose of Astragalus (A.membranaceus) has a protective effect on hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion injury of the intestinal mucosa (R).
Astragalus Polysaccharide (APS) effectively reduces TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid)-induced experimental colitis (an inflammatory reaction in the colon) in rats (R).
17) Astragalus Helps Muscle Function and Enhances Exercise Endurance Capacity
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) improves muscle atrophy from dexamethasone and peroxide induced injury in muscle cells (R).
Astragalus supplementation in mice could prolong their swimming times, enhance exercise endurance capacity (R).
18) Astragalus Helps Bone Function
Astragalus (A.membranaceus) extract significantly improved bone mineral density, biochemical density and ash weight of the femur and tibia in rats with their ovaries taken out. When combined with supplemental calcium it could also be more protective against the calcium loss in calcium-insufficient postmenopausal women (R).
19) Astragalus Protects the Liver
Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Astragalus (A.membranaceus) root reduced the liver injury induced by stilbenemidine (R).
Intake of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma orientale, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Pueraria lobata) may be useful in preventing and improving fatty liver induced by alcohol (R).
20) Astragalus Reduces Fatigue
Astragalus flavonoids reduce chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming in rats (R).
21) Astragalus Helps Treat Anemia and Other Blood Disorders
Therapy with Astragalus (Radix astragali) or its compound prescription is effective and safe in children with -thalassemia (R).
60 gms of Astragalus as part of the “Erzhi Busui Decoction” a chinese herbal medicine when given to patients with severe aplastic anemia reduced its severity (R).
Astragalus injection could promote the recovery of hemopoietic function which might be through improving T-lymphocyte function in chronic aplastic anemic patients (R).
Astragalus membranaceus injection (AMI) can lessen apoptosis of bone marrow cells and promote hematopoietic progenitor cells to differentiate in anemic mice (R).
Pure preparation of Astragalus is effective in treating patients with leukopenia (a reduction in the number of white blood cells in blood). Increasing the dosage could increase its effectiveness (R).
22) Astragalus is an Anti-fibrotic
Astragalus could be a useful agent against peritoneal dialysis (PD)-induced peritoneal scarring of tissue (PF) in rats (R).
Astragalus could be used as a potential agent for managing fibrotic disorders like Systemic scleroderma (characterized by fibrotic changes in the skin) (R).
23) Astragalus Reduces Iron Overload
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) might have a therapeutic role in treating iron overload especially in Thalassemia patients as mentioned in one study. Experiments showed that APS increased hepcidin and reduced iron overload in mice (R).
Astragalus plus ligustrazine could effectively protect against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury during open heart surgery of cardiopulmonary bypass patients (R).
Astragalus membranaceus and Goji combined extract significantly inhibited the growth of an experimental transitional renal cell carcinoma in mice (R).
Astragalus roots and elderberry fruit (Sambucus nigra) extracts together increase the IFN-beta inducing activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus in rat nerve cells (R).
Astragalus and Panax notoginseng could promote the transformation of bone marrow stem cells and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) in lab experiments (R).
Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (CASE) exhibited inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, invasion and collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts (TGF-/Smad pathway) (R).
Astragalus (A. mongholicus) and Angelica sinensis together reduce high lipid content considerably in nephrotic rats (R).
Astragalus (A. mongholicus) and Polygonum multiflorum in combination had more protective effects on thymus against cyclophosphamide-induced injury (R).
Buying & Dosage
Astragalus root: About 1-4 grams of fresh dried root.
Powdered root capsules: 250-500 milligrams, two capsules TID (three times a day).
Tincture: 3-6 ml (half-1 tsp) TID.
Child doses: Have not been specified
Textbooks on chinese herbs recommend taking 9-15 gms of the crude herb per day in decoction form. A decoction is made by boiling the root in water for few minutes and then brewing the tea (R).
Safety and Cautions
Astragalus is considered safe for most adults (R).
Pregnant and lactating women should not take this herb.
It may interact with medications that suppress the immune system, such as the drug cyclophosphamide taken by cancer patients and similar drugs taken by organ transplant recipients. It may also affect blood sugar levels and blood pressure (R1,R2).
One study suggested that oral administration of A.membranaceus may lead to increase in CA19-9 and the formation of liver and kidney cysts (R).
Some Astragalus species may be toxic, few of them contain the alkaloid “swainsonine” which may cause “locoism” in livestock (R). Few species contain potentially toxic levels of selenium.
Potentially Active Chemical Constituents
Polysaccharides are the most important functional constituents in Astragalus and responsible for the antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory capabilities of this herb (R).
Astragalus also mainly contains flavonoids which show antioxidative qualities and help prevent heart disease and immunodeficiency viruses. Other constituents include amino acids, folic acid etc and minerals like selenium, zinc and copper (R).
Astragalus (Astragaloside IV) exerted its cellular effects by activating the Src/MEK/ERK pathway (R).
Promotes protein expression of Bax, decreases protein expression of Bcl-2 gene, and markedly increases the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (R).
Promoting heart function
Immune cell activation
Inhibits the synthesis of extracellular matrix and balance the MMP/TIMP-1 system (R).
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