What is CYP1A2?
CYP1A2 is one of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs). These are enzymes that eliminate most of the drugs and toxins from the human body .
- Caffeine – CYP1A2 is the major caffeine-metabolizing enzyme .
- Hormones including melatonin, estrogens (estrone and estradiol), bilirubin, and uroporphyrinogen .
- Drugs such as theophylline, tacrine, clozapine, olanzapine, Tylenol (acetaminophen)[4, 5], and MDMA (ecstasy) .
- Toxins such as aromatic heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and aflatoxin B1 .
CYP1A2 activity shows a remarkable degree of variation (up to 40-fold) between individuals based on their genes, ancestry, and environmental factors (e.g. smoking, coffee consumption, and diet) [7, 4].
This enzyme is found mainly in the liver but has also been detected in the pancreas and lungs .
It accounts for approximately 13% of total CYPs in the human liver .
CYP1A2 The Good
This enzyme is important for removing toxic chemicals from our body and processing hormones and other products of our metabolism.
CYP1A2 The Bad
CYP1A2 activates cancer-causing agents such as aromatic heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and aflatoxin B1 .
Both increased and decreased enzyme activity have been linked to increased risk of cancer.
Nonsmokers who are rapid CYP1A2 metabolizers (meaning they have increased CYP1A2 activity) have an increased risk of giving birth to infants with decreased birth size when consuming over 300 mg caffeine/day .
CYP1A2 Gene Polymorphism
More than 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP1A2 gene have been discovered so far .
African and Asian populations seem to have lower enzyme activity .
rs762551 A/A is a fast metabolizer, while C/C and AC are slow metabolizers. This means that those having the A/A genotype will process caffeine and other substances metabolized by CYP1A2 much quicker, and these substances will have less effect on the body. On the other hand, C/C and A/C people will process caffeine slower, and it will have more effect on their system.
In line with the above, 31.3% of the C carriers (C/C, A/C) reported increased nervousness after caffeine ingestion, while none of the A/A people had this side effect (pilot study, 21 participants) .
On the other hand, heavy coffee consumption increases the risk of impaired fasting glucose among C carriers with hypertension (elevated blood pressure) (1,180 subjects) and increases nonfatal heart attack risk also among C carriers (4028 subjects) .
Furthermore, rs762551 C/C was associated with tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements) in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics for a long time (475 patients) .
rs762551 A/A increases carbamazepine clearance (40 patients) .
Finally, this SNP increased lung cancer risk, but decreased bladder cancer risk in some populations (meta-analysis, 21 studies, 4,722 cases, and 6,555 controls) .
T decreased lung cancer risk in Europeans (105 patients, 189 controls) .
The A was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer (48 subjects) .
C/C are rapid metabolizers (more active enzyme), while C/T and T/T are slow metabolizers (less active enzyme).
In elderly people who take a lot of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C) had a lower bone mineral density (BMD) than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes) (717 seniors) .
Increasing or Decreasing CYP1A2
These increase CYP1A2 activity:
- Cigarette smoke – dose dependently [4, 3].
- Coffee consumption , 1.45-fold per liter of coffee drunk daily .
- Meat pan-fried at high temperatures – 1.4-fold .
- Chargrilled meat – 1.89-fold .
- Cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, and cauliflower [21, 22]. For example, 500g broccoli daily increases enzyme activity 1.19-fold .
- Diindolylmethane, found in cruciferous vegetables .
- Ginkgo biloba .
- Green and black tea .
- Higher BMI .
- Being female – 0.90-fold .
- Menstrual Cycle – 1.03-fold up to 1.10-fold .
- Insulin .
- Heavy exercise .
- Omeprazole .
These decrease CYP1A2 activity:
- Curcumin .
- Cinnamon’s component o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde .
- Ginseng extract .
- Peppermint, chamomile, and dandelion tea .
- Grapefruit juice and its component naringenin .
- Starfruit juice .
- African lettuce L. taraxacifolia .
- Propolis .
- Echinacea purpurea .
- Licochalcone A, a major compound in traditional Chinese herbal licorice .
- Caffeic acid [35, 36], found at a high level in thyme, sage, spearmint, Ceylon cinnamon, and star anise.
- Quercetin .
- Oleuropein, derived from olive oil .
- Kale ingestion, unlike that of other cruciferous vegetables .
- Apiaceous vegetables (carrots, parsnips, celery, and parsley) .
- Raspberry leaf .
- Antibiotic fluoroquinolones .
- Fluvoxamine .