Health Benefits and Side Effects of Garcinia cambogia
Garcinia cambogia is a plant known for its weight loss action, especially its extracts. Garcinia cambogia not only prevents obesity, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides, but it may also boost the immune system, fight cancer, and prevent ulcers. Keep reading to learn more about the health benefits and side effects of Garcinia cambogia.
What Is Garcinia Cambogia?
Garcinia belongs to family Guttiferae (Clusiaceae), which includes over 200 species, today mostly found throughout Asia and Africa. Garcinia Cambogia, also known as Garcinia gummi-gutta or Malabar tamarind, originated in Southeast Asia, India, and Africa [R, R].
The plant rind is used to polish gold and silver, while the plant resin is used as a pigment for paintings and watercolors, and the gum is used as a varnish [R].
The fruit of the plant has a yellow or red color and resembles a pumpkin. Although the fruits can be eaten, their taste is very acid and are usually are not consumed raw [R].
However, Garcinia cambogia supplements have a variety of other benefits, including:
- Lowering cholesterol, and triglycerides [R, R, R, R, R]
- Helping with diabetes [R, R, R]
- Boosting immunity [R, R]
- Antioxidant activities [R, R, R, R]
- Fighting Cancer [R, R, R]
- Preventing ulcer [R, R]
- Killing Bacteria [R, R]
- Xanthones also found in the root [R]:
Parts of the plant also contain many alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds.
The Garcinia cambogia fruits also contain [R]:
- Many amino acids (arginine, asparagine, glutamine, threonine, glycine, proline, γ-aminobutyric acid, leucine, isoleucine, ornithine, and lysine).
Mechanism of Action
The hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia prevents obesity by:
- Blocking an enzyme (ATP citrate lyase) that leads to fat production(via acetyl-coenzyme A), and the levels of an enzyme that makes fats (fatty acid synthase) [R, R, R, R].
- Decreasing the activity of the genes which promote fat production (C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, SREBP1c, and aP2) [R, R, R, R].
- Increasing the levels of a fat-burning enzyme (lipoprotein lipase) [R].
The hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia lowers appetite by:
- Blocking the ATP citrate lyase, in response to which the body produces more glycogen in the liver, increasing the feeling of satiety [R, R, R].
- Increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that suppresses the feeling of hunger [R, R].
The hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia lower fat (lipids) levels by:
- Blocking the activity of obesity-related genes (C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, SREBP1c, CCAT, and aP2) [R, R, R, R].
- Decreasing the production of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and fat (free fatty acids) in the liver [R].
Garcinia cambogia boosts immune function by:
- Decreasing inflammatory compounds (CPR, TNF-α, IL-1β) [R, R, R]
- Blocking the activity of enzymes causing inflammation (myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) [R]
- Preventing the production of enzymes that cause inflammation (PGE2, 5-lipoxygenase) [R, R]
- Increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase) [R]
Garcinia cambogia acts as an antioxidant as:
- Decreasing the fat damage caused by oxidative stress, [R]
- Reducing brain, liver, and kidney oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, protein carbonyl (DNPH), catalase, protein tyrosine nitration, and butyrylcholinesterase, and increasing brain nitric oxide) [R, R, R].
Garcinia cambogia fights cancer by:
- Reducing cancer and tumor growth (by blocking ATP citrate lyase and Ki-67) [R, R, R].
- Increasing cell death (via increasing caspase-3) [R].
- Preventing cancer growth ( via activation of proteins, enzymes, and DNA binding ) [R, R, R].
The hydroxycitric acid in Garcinia cambogia enhances exercise performance by:
- Increasing fat breakdown and decreasing carbohydrates breakdown, which spares glycogen to be used for exercise [R, R].
Health Benefits of Garcinia Cambogia
1) Garcinia Cambogia Boosts Weight Loss
In 99 obese men, Garcinia cambogia together with a weight-loss drug (orlistat), lowered the BMI, belly fat (visceral fat), and overall fat under the skin (subcutaneous), as well as the waist circumference in a 3-month study (TB-RCT) [R].
In two, 12-week studies(DB-RCT), Garcinia cambogia reduced weight by about 3.7 kilos, 1.3 kilos more than the placebo in 89 mildly overweight adults, and by 3.5 kilos, of which 85% was fat, in 20 obese adults [R, R].
After 16 weeks, Garcinia cambogia extract decreased total fat, belly fat (visceral fat), and fat under the skin (subcutaneous) in 18 adults, compared to placebo group of 21 adults (DB-RCT) [R].
In an 8-week study (DB-RCT) on 40 obese adults, Garcinia cambogia reduced belly and under-the-skin fat better than the placebo [R].
Garcinia cambogia extract reduced the body weight by 4.67% in 30 overweight or obese adults (compared to only 0.63% in 28 adults receiving placebo) in a 60-day study (DB-RCT) [R].
Hydroxycitric acid decreased body weight in a study (DB-RCT) of 21 obese adults after 2 weeks [R].
Garcinia Cambogia Did Not Cause Weight Loss In These Cases
In a 12-week trial (DB-RCT) of 135 overweight adults, hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia did not decrease body weight or fat more than the placebo [R].
Similarly, in a 10-week study (RCT), Garcinia cambogia did not decrease the body weight of 86 overweight adults [R].
In 10 cyclists, hydroxycitric acid did not affect fat or carbohydrate breakdown [R].
2) Garcinia Cambogia Lowers Appetite
In a 6-week study (SD-RCT) on 24 overweight adults, hydroxycitric acid, the main component of Garcinia cambogia, reduced the food consumption while maintaining the feeling of satiety compared to placebo [R].
After 8 weeks, hydroxycitric acid decreased food consumption in a study (DB-RCT) of 60 moderately obese adults [R].
However, in a 12-week study (DB-RCT) of 89 mildly overweight adults, Garcinia cambogia decreased their body weight but did not affect their appetite [R].
Garcinia cambogia extracts reduced food consumption and appetite in rats within an hour [R].
3) Garcinia Cambogia Decreases Cholesterol
In an 8-week study (DB-RCT) on 82 obese adults, hydroxycitric acid (the main component of Garcinia cambogia) decreased LDL-cholesterol levels by 12.9% and increased HDL-cholesterol levels by 8.9% [R].
In 60 moderately obese adults hydroxycitric acid with or without Gymnema Sylvestre extracts reduced the total cholesterol and LDL levels during an 8-week study (DB-RCT),[R].
In an 8-week study on 35 healthy adults, Garcinia cambogia decreased cholesterol levels more than the placebo [R].
However, in 86 overweight adults undergoing a 10-week study (RCT), Garcinia cambogia did not impact the cholesterol levels [R].
4) Garcinia Cambogia Reduces Triglyceride Levels
In 82 obese adults, hydroxycitric acid, the main component of Garcinia cambogia, decreased blood triglycerides by 6.9% in an 8-week study (DB-RCT) [R].
In a 60-day study (DB-RCT) of 43 obese women, Garcinia cambogia reduced the triglyceride levels by 28% [R].
In an 8-week study (DB-RCT) on 60 moderately obese adults, hydroxycitric acid lowered blood triglycerides with or without Gymnema Sylvestre extract [R].
In 35 healthy adults, 8-week Garcinia cambogia consumption reduced blood triglycerides more than the placebo [R].
5) Garcinia Cambogia Helps Protect Against Diabetes
Hydroxycitric acid in Garcinia cambogia did not affect 8 patients with diabetes type 2, but it did lower the blood sugar levels in 12 healthy adults in a study (DB-RCT) [R].
In rats, the hydroxycitric acid in Garcinia cambogia decreased the number of sugars taken up in the gut, lowering the blood sugar levels after a meal [R].
6) Garcinia Cambogia Enhances Exercise Performance
In a 5-day experiment of 6 male athletes, hydroxycitric acid increased fat breakdown and decreased carbohydrates breakdown. This helped boost endurance performance while sparing sugar reserves [R].
5-day Garcinia cambogia also increased fat breakdown and enhanced exercise performance in 6 untrained women [R].
7) Garcinia Cambogia Reduces Inflammation
In rats with gut inflammation (colitis), Garcinia cambogia extracts reduced inflammation by blocking the production of inflammatory enzymes and molecules (myeloperoxidase (MPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) [R].
In mice with multiple sclerosis, hydroxycitric acid decreased the nerve damage and lowered inflammation. It decreased inflammatory compounds (cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde), and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase) [R].
8) Garcinia Cambogia Is An Antioxidant
9) Garcinia Cambogia May Fight Cancer
10) Garcinia Cambogia May Prevent Ulcers
In rats, Garcinia cambogia decreased the amount and acidity of the stomach fluid and helped to prevent damage to the stomach. It activated the stomach’s natural defense, helping to prevent ulcers [R, R].
11) Garcinia Cambogia Kills Bacteria
Escherichia coli (gut infection)
Klebsiella pneumoniae (lung infection, pneumonia)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lung, urinary, and blood infections)
Bacillus subtilis (gut infection)
Staphylococcus aureus (skin infections, airway infections, food poisoning).
12) Garcinia Cambogia May Increase Mineral Levels
13) Garcinia Cambogia May Flush Excess Fluids
In rats, the extracts of Garcinia cambogia leaves increased flushing of excess fluids, acting as a diuretic. In fact, this may contribute to its weight-loss effect, as herbs that are used for weight loss usually also act as mild diuretics [R].
14) Garcinia May Fight Malaria
Dangers of Garcinia Cambogia
1) Garcinia Cambogia Can Cause Liver Damage
Garcinia cambogia and its main component, hydroxycitric acid, caused acute liver and irreversible liver damage in a series of case reports. The dosage varied from 240 mg to 500 mg hydroxycitric acid daily [R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R, R].
In mice, Garcinia cambogia damaged and scarred the liver (liver fibrosis) [R].
2) Garcinia Cambogia May Influence Sex Hormones
Similarly, in rats, Garcinia cambogia did not affect any sex hormones [R].
However, in one study with rats, Garcinia cambogia extract caused testes damage and shrinking. This may be a concern for men, but probably only at very high doses [R].
3) Garcinia Cambogia May Impair Mental Health
In patients with or without psychiatric disorders, Garcinia cambogia caused delusions, high self-esteem, reduced need for sleep, increased activity, and rapid speech – symptoms of mania and psychosis [R, R, R, R, R].
A 33-year-old woman, suffered hallucinations, delusions, and impaired coordination after an 8-week Garcinia cambogia consumption [R].
4) Garcinia Cambogia May Cause Heart Problems
Common Side Effects
However, Garcinia cambogia may cause more serious side effects, such as:
People with liver disease should probably avoid Garcinia due to its potential to damage the liver.
Garcinia cambogia should not be taken by pregnant or breastfeeding women [R].
Rare Side Effects
Rare side effects of Garcinia cambogia include:
- Mania/Psychosis [R, R, R, R, R]
- Heart problems [R, R]
- Serious muscle damage (rhabdomyolysis) [R, R, R]
- Pancreas inflammation (pancreatitis) [R]
- Extremely high levels of ketones (diabetic ketoacidosis) [R]
Limitations and Caveats
Although there is a sufficient number of studies about the weight loss and appetite reduction benefits of Garcinia cambogia, the results are mixed. In most cases, the number of participants was limited or the sample very specific (obese or overweight).
With regard to the other benefits, studies are limited and most of them are on animals or cells.
More human studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness.
The Garcinia cambogia extract may decrease blood sugar levels; it should be avoided in patients who take medications for diabetes type 2 [R].
Garcinia cambogia can increase serotonin levels and may cause serotonin syndrome if combined with antidepressants (including reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs) [R].
Garcinia cambogia blocks the activity of the CYP2B6 enzyme. This may dangerously increase the levels of other drugs (such as blood thinners, antidepressants, anti-inflammatory, chemotherapeutics, opioids, and antiepileptics) [R, R].
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Natural Sources and Supplementation
Garcinia cambogia supplements can be found in powder form, liquid extracts, tablets or capsules [R].
Most supplements contain hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, in various doses, ranging from 250mg to 900 mg [R].
Garcinia Cambogia In Combination With Other Supplements
Garcinia Cambogia and Glucomannan
In 214 overweight or obese adults, 6-month consumption of Garcinia cambogia together with glucomannan decreased body weight by 16%, total fat by 12%, and deep fat (visceral fat) by 15% [R].
In the same study, the cholesterol levels decreased by 8%, the triglycerides by 10%, and the blood sugar levels by 3% in 3 months and by 13%, 15.3 %, and 6% in 6 months, accordingly [R].
Garcinia Cambogia and Konjac
In a 12-week study (DB-RCT) on 58 obese adults, Garcinia cambogia with another plant extract (Amorphophallus konjac) greatly decreased the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in 32 participants but did not lower body weight, waist circumference or body composition compared to placebo [R].
In 98 overweight adults, Garcinia cambogia together with these botanical extracts decreased fat mass but did not lower their body weight, BMI, or waist-to-hip ratio compared to placebo in a 12-week study (DB-RCT) [R].
Garcinia Cambogia and Seaweed
Garcinia Cambogia and Pear Pomace Extract
Garcinia cambogia together with pear pomace extract can prevent obesity, promote weight loss and fat burning [R].
Combined, they blocked the activity of fat-producing genes (C/EBP-α, and PPAR-γ), decreased fat production, and increased fat breakdown (hormone-sensitive lipase) [R].
Garcinia Cambogia and Apple Cider Vinegar
Garcinia and apple cider are often used together to boost weight loss. Users report mixing two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar in a glass of warm water and taking two standard pills of natural garcinia cambogia.
However, there are no studies confirming the benefits of this combination.
Garcinia Cambogia and Green Coffee Bean
Garcinia cambogia and green coffee bean are often consumed together for a faster weight loss. However, there are no studies confirming the benefits of this trend.
The highest levels of Garcinia cambogia extract which is safe to use without adverse effects is 2,800 mg/day [R].
Many users reported that Garcinia cambogia helped them to lose weight, reduced their appetite and made them feel more energetic and lively.
One user experienced increased sex drive and stamina.
Users with fibromyalgia experienced reduced joint pain with Garcinia cambogia.
However, many users reported that Garcinia cambogia did not affect their health or help with weight loss in any way.
One user shared that he even felt hungrier after taking Garcinia.