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A Panacea: 39 Health Benefits of Broccoli Sprouts and Sulforaphane

There are a handful of molecules that I would characterize as being close to a panacea – in that they can help almost every chronic disease. Sulforaphane is one of them. It’s an incredible molecule that’s most known for its ability to kill cancer. It will help you if you’ve got a Th1 or Th2 disorder.  It’s an example of a molecule that is an immune stimulant but also an anti-inflammatory, and these are usually contradictory. Read on to discover 30+ other reasons why you should eat your broccoli (sprouts).

Contents

Introduction: Sulforaphane and Broccoli Sprouts

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Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate, a sulfur-containing organic compound (R, R). It is derived from glucoraphanin, found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts and kale (R, R).

Sulforaphane is produced when glucoraphanin comes into contact with the enzyme myrosinase, contained within the same cells but in different compartments (R, R).

For example, cutting, chewing, or otherwise disrupting the broccoli plant cells initiates the production of sulforaphane. Compared to the stable glucoraphanin, sulforaphane begins degrading soon after production (R).

3 day-old sprouts of certain cruciferous vegetables contain 10–100 times higher concentrations of glucoraphanin than in mature plants (R). Levels of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane are highest in broccoli sprouts (R).

Sulforaphane has antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, neuroprotective, and anti-diabetic properties (R). Sulforaphane also protects against cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases (R).

Apart from sulforaphane, broccoli sprouts contain many other bioactive, health-promoting compounds, such as gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, sinapinic, benzoic and salicylic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and vitamin C (R).

Sulforaphane Benefits

A lot of the information given below is derived from animal and laboratory-based studies. Human studies are still falling behind, but will hopefully soon follow.

1) Sulforaphane Promotes Detoxification

Sulforaphane is an indirect antioxidant. It boosts the antioxidant capacity of cells by at least two mechanisms (R).:

  1. Inducing phase 2 detoxification enzymes – Sulforaphane is the most potent inducer of phase 2 enzymes identified to date. It acts by activating Nrf2 and ARE (R, R, R), and increasing glutathione S-transferases activity (R).
  2. Increasing cellular glutathione levels

2) Sulforaphane Prevents and Combats Cancer

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Of all the molecules I’ve studied, sulforaphane and broccoli sprouts are the most promising at preventing and killing cancer (R).

A diet rich in Brassica vegetables decreases the risk of cancer (R, R). Three to five servings per week are sufficient to decrease the risk of cancer by ∼30%–40% (R).

Subjects who consumed at least one portion of cruciferous vegetables per week had a significantly reduced risk of oral cavity, pharynx, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and kidney cancers (R).

The great thing about sulforaphane is that it kills cancer cells, but seems to have very little effect on healthy cells (R).

Sulforaphane treatment reduce DNA damage and mutation rate when cancer-causing chemicals bind DNA (R).

Sulforaphane kills colorectal cancer cells (R), oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (R), breast cancer cells (R), cervical cancer cells, liver cancer cells, prostate cancer cells and leukemia cells (R, R).

SFN inhibits the growth of glioblastoma (R), thyroid (R), prostate (R), mammary (R), tongue (R) and lung cancer (R) in animals.

Broccoli sprouts significantly and dose-dependently inhibited bladder cancer development in rats (R) and UV-radiation-induced skin cancer development in mice (R).

Sulforaphane combats cancer by multiple mechanisms:

  • SFN inhibits Phase I enzymes that can activate pro-carcinogens (R).
  • SFN induces Phase II enzymes that are responsible for eliminating chemicals that damage DNA (R).
  • SFN changes gene activation/deactivation (R). It causes demethylation, thereby restoring the activity of important tumor-suppressing and cell-cycle controlling genes (R).
  • Sulforaphane induces cancer cell death (R).
  • Sulforaphane inhibits the NF-κB pathway, thus reducing inflammation (R).
  • Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest (R) and thereby inhibits cancer cell proliferation.

Apart from being effective in its own right, sulforaphane also enhances the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs including cisplatin, gemcitabine, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil, toward pancreatic and prostate cancer cells, while limiting their toxicity to normal cells (R).

However, although sulforaphane was found to be safe and effective in several studies, it was not effective in 2 clinical trials (R, R).

3) Sulforaphane Lowers Cholesterol

Eating glucoraphanin-rich broccoli significantly reduces LDL cholesterol in humans (R). SFN is produced in the body from glucoraphanin.

In twelve healthy subjects, eating fresh broccoli sprouts (100 g/day) for 1 week decreased total and LDL cholesterol, and increased HDL cholesterol. Broccoli sprouts also improved oxidative stress markers (R).

4) Sulforaphane Prevents and Combats Cardiovascular Disease

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A diet rich in Brassica vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease (R).

Both sulforaphane and broccoli sprouts high in glucoraphanin decrease blood pressure in hypertensive rats (R, R).

A short dietary treatment of rats with broccoli sprouts protects the heart against oxidative stress and cell death caused by ischemia (reduced blood flow and low oxygen) (R). Sulforaphane also reduced heart damage after infarct in rats (R).

Sulforaphane protects against the hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) (R) and suppresses inflammation in hardened arteries in animals (R).

SFN further possesses antithrombotic activities. SFN inhibits human platelet aggregation and reduces blood clot formation (R). SFN reduced the mortality of acute lung thromboembolism in mice (R).

Finally, sulforaphane is beneficial in stroke. In rodents, SFN decreases brain infarct (damaged tissue from stroke) volume (R) and maintains the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and neurological function after stroke (R).

5) Sulforaphane May Combat Obesity

In mice with western diet-induced obesity, three weeks of sulforaphane supplementation reduced weight gain, leptin and insulin levels, and improved insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, and cholesterol (R).

Similarly, in another study, sulforaphan inhibited high-fat-diet-induced obesity and fat accumulation in mice and reduced total cholesterol, leptin and liver triglyceride levels (R).

6) Sulforaphane Improves Diabetes

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Broccoli sprouts improve many parameters in diabetes. In type 2 diabetics, eating broccoli sprouts increased blood antioxidant capacity and HDL cholesterol, and decreased oxidative stress, triglycerides, insulin, insulin resistance, and CRP (R, R, R).

Sulforaphane also prevents diabetes-related complications in animals, such as (R, R2)

  • nephropathy
  • tissue damage
  • vascular complications .
  • diabetes-induced heart dysfunction
  • thickening of the heart muscle,
  • heart damage in mice

However, in rats, while SFN had positive effects on diabetes, liver function and cholesterol were aggravated after treatment (R).

7) Sulforaphane Can Boost the Immune System

Sulforaphane enhances bacterial clearance by macrophages and increases the activity of natural killer cells (NK cells) in mice (R).

In studies with aging mice, sulforaphane boosts Th1 immunity and to restores or delays the decline of cellular immunity that happens with aging (R).

8) Sulforaphane is Antiviral

Broccoli sprouts enhance human antiviral responses (R).

Broccoli sprouts reduce influenza viral load in humans (R).

SFN exhibits significant antiviral activity against influenza (the flu), HIV, Epstein-Barr virus (R) and hepatitis C virus (R).

SFN blocks HIV infection in macrophages. Macrophages play a critical role in HIV infection, forming long-lived viral reservoirs and distribute the virus in the body (R).

On the other hand, SFN may exacerbate infections by viruses that hijack Nrf2, such as the Marburg virus, the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and Dengue virus (R).

9) Sulforaphane Combats Bacterial and Fungal Infections

In one study, 23 out of 28 tested bacterial and fungal species were inhibited by sulforaphane (R).

Mycobacterium abscessus is frequently found in patients with cystic fibrosis and in immunosuppressed patients. Pretreatment of macrophages with sulforaphane significantly decreased bacterial burden (R).

Human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2) plays an important role against bacterial invasion. Sulforaphane is able to increase antimicrobial peptides such as HBD-2 (R).

10) Sulforaphane Protects the Skin

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Sulforaphane provides protection against UVA and UVB inflammation, sunburn, and skin damage (R, R).

UV radiation induces direct DNA damage and inflammation and suppresses the immune response. Sulforaphane-rich extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts increased Phase 2 enzymes in human and mouse skin, protected against UV radiation-induced inflammation and edema in mice, and reduced susceptibility to erythema (skin redness) in humans (R).

Sulforaphane protects skin cells against oxidative stress caused by UVA radiation with a ∼50% reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (R).

UVA irradiation plays a role in the premature aging of the skin by triggering oxidative stress, and inducing collagen degradation, a hallmark of photoaged skin. Pretreatment of mouse skin with sulforaphane protects against UVA-mediated collagen depletion (R).

Sulforaphane ameliorates skin blistering in epidermolysis bullosa simplex (R). Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is a rare inherited condition in which the skin loses its integrity after mechanical trauma.

11) Sulforaphane Combats Inflammation

Sulforaphane inactivates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a key inducer of inflammation (R).

Sulforaphane also activates Nrf2, which lowers inflammation, and decreases proinflammatory mediators in mice (R, R).

12) Sulforaphane May Combat Depression and Anxiety

Inflammation has been recognized as one of the causes of depression. By reducing inflammation, sulforaphane can help combat depression.

Repeated SFN administration reverses depression– and anxiety-like behaviors in chronically stressed mice, likely by inhibiting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammatory responses to stress (R, R).

In another study, it was shown that Nrf2 deficiency in mice results in depressive-like behavior, while the induction of Nrf2 by sulforaphane has antidepressant-like effects (R).

Also, dietary intake of glucoraphanin during the juvenile and adolescent periods in mice prevents the onset of depression-like behaviors at adulthood (R).

13) Sulforaphane Protects the Brain and Restores Cognitive Function

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Sulforaphane increases neuronal BDNF in mice, a factor that supports the survival of existing neurons and encourages the formation of new neurons and synapses (R).

SFN reduces brain inflammation in various animal models of pathogen-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease (R, R, R, R).

Sulforaphane promotes microglia differentiation from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 state. This reduces brain inflammation and restores spatial learning and coordination in rats (R).

Sulforaphane is beneficial in various pathological conditions:

  • SFN improves cognitive performance and reduces working memory dysfunction in rats after traumatic brain injury (R).
  • SFN attenuates cognitive deficits in mouse models of psychiatric disease. Also, the intake of glucoraphanin during the juvenile and adolescent periods prevents the onset of cognitive deficits at adulthood (R).
  • SFN alleviates brain swelling in rats, by attenuating the blood-brain barrier disruption, decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibiting NF-κB (R). SFN also increases AQP4 (a water channel protein) levels, thereby reducing brain swelling (R).
  • SFN prevents memory impairment and increases the survival of hippocampal neurons in diabetic rats (R).

Sulforaphane recovers memory in mice and rats with chemically induced memory impairment (R, R R).

SFN exerts positive effects against brain damage induced by acute CO poisoning in rats (R).

Sulforaphane protects human neurons against prion-mediated neurotoxicity (R).

Insufficient NRF2 activation in humans has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (R). SFN, as a potent Nrf2 activator, may help in the treatment of these diseases.

14) Sulforaphane May Help with Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. In animal models of Parkinson’s disease, sulforaphane ameliorates deficits in motor coordination and inhibits dopaminergic neuronal loss (R, R, R, R).

15) Sulforaphane May Help with Alzheimer’s Disease

Aberrant production and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide are major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Broccoli sprouts protect against Aβ-induced cell death (R, R), and sulforaphane inhibits Aβ related inflammation (R).

Sulforaphane reduces Aβ plaque and neuron loss, and ameliorates cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like mouse models (R, R, R).

16) Sulforaphane May Help with Huntington’s Disease

Sulforaphane activates the protein degradation machinery that promotes huntingtin degradation and reduces huntingtin toxicity in mice (R).

17) Sulforaphane May Prevent Seizures

Sulforaphane protects against seizures and elevates the seizure thresholds in mice (R).

18) Sulforaphane Improves Schizophrenia

Sulforaphane improved performance in a learning task in outpatients with schizophrenia (R).

Methamphetamine can induce psychosis in susceptible people. Sulforaphane attenuates behavioral abnormalities in mice after administration of methamphetamine or phencyclidine, suggesting that it may help with schizophrenia (R).

Sulforaphane protects against antipsychotic-induced toxicity in dopaminergic neurons (R).

19) Sulforaphane May be Beneficial in Substance Abuse

Sulforaphane can attenuate behavioral and neuropathological changes associated with methamphetamine exposure in mice. Pretreatment with sulforaphane attenuated acute hyperlocomotion (increase in movement) in mice after a single administration of methamphetamine (R).

Also, the development of behavioral sensitization after repeated administrations of methamphetamine was significantly reduced by pretreatment with sulforaphane  (R).

20) Sulforaphane May Improve Autism Symptoms

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In a clinical trial, sulforaphane improved behavior in young men with autism (R).

Sulforaphane activates genes that protect cells against oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA-damage, all of which are associated with autism spectrum disorder (R).

21) Sulforaphane Can Protect Against GI Injury and Inflammation

SFN protects the gut against NSAIDs-related damage. SFN ameliorates aspirin/NSAID-induced injury of the gut in mice (R, R), and inhibits gastric ulcers in rats (R).

Nrf2-deficient mice exhibit worse colitis symptoms (R), indicating that SFN can help in this condition by activating Nrf2. Indeed, in another study, treatment with SFN decreased inflammation in mice with colitis (R).

22) Sulforaphane Combats H. pylori

SFN is beneficial against Helicobacter pylori infections (R). Broccoli sprouts inhibit the growth of H. pylori (R).

In several human studies, broccoli sprouts decreased H. pylori colonization and reduced stomach inflammation (R, R, R). These effects were temporary because values went back to their original levels two months after treatment was discontinued (R).

In another study, broccoli sprout extract did not inhibit H. pylori colonization but nevertheless protected the stomach lining (R).

In H. pylori-infected type 2 diabetic patients, broccoli sprouts powder, in addition to standard triple therapy, considerably improved H. pylori eradication, and also improved heart health in these subjects (R).

H. pylori increases oxidative stress, thereby causing damage to the stomach lining, slowing down damage repair, and eventually inducing gastric cancer. Sulforaphane activates Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby protecting stomach cells from oxidative injury (R).

Sulforaphane can also protect the stomach lining by reducing inflammation (R). Improved stomach lining health also makes it more difficult for H. pylori to colonize the stomach, which explains the reduced rate of colonization found in some human studies (R).

23) Sulforaphane Improves Liver Function

In men with fatty liver, broccoli sprouts improved liver function and decreased ALT, γ-GTP, and ALP (R).

In animals, SFN protects against a wide variety of liver diseases caused by toxic chemicals, drugs, alcohol, and high-calorie diet (R, R, R).

Broccoli sprouts activate detoxification and glutathione production, increasing GST while decreasing AST and ALT in rat livers (R).

Sulforaphane inhibits alcohol-induced fatty liver in mice (R).

Many drugs, including sodium valproate, cause liver tocixity. In rats, SFN significantly boosted liver function, reduced ALT, AST, and ALP, and ameliorated valproate-induced liver damage (R).

24) Sulforaphane Reduces Health Damage from Pollution

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Sulforaphane helps the body detoxify airborne pollutants, pesticides, and heavy metals, by activating detoxification systems, mainly the Phase II enzymes.

In a farming community exposed to airborne pollutants, with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, broccoli sprouts enhanced the detoxication of airborne pollutants and reduced the risks of cancer (R).

Sulforaphane induces Phase II enzymes in the upper airway of human subjects (R). Phase II enzymes have important protective effects against diesel exhaust particles (DEP), ozone, and tobacco smoke (R).

Sulforaphane reduces the pro-inflammatory and pro-allergic effects typically caused by exposure to diesel exhaust particle (R).

Sulforaphane protects human white blood cells (lymphocytes) from pesticide-induced DNA damage (R).

Aflatoxin binds DNA and causes liver cancer. Sulforaphane reduces the binding of aflatoxin to DNA in rats (R).

Sulforaphane inhibits the mutagenicity caused by heterocyclic amines (cooked food mutagens) (R).

Cadmium reduces testosterone, sperm motility, sperm count, and increases sperm deformity in mice. SFN improved sperm quality, testosterone, and antioxidant levels (R).

Sulforaphane attenuates liver damage caused by cadmium selenide in mice (R).

Exposure to arsenic increases the risk of lung disease. Sulforaphane blocks DNA damage and mild lung damage caused by two-week exposure of mice to arsenic-containing dust (R).

25) Sulforaphane May be Beneficial in Airway Inflammation and Asthma

Sulforaphane has beneficial effects in animals with asthma and airway inflammation (R), but studies in humans are less conclusive.

Broccoli sprout extract suppresses airway inflammation in humans exposed to diesel exhaust particles (equivalent to daily PM exposure levels on a Los Angeles freeway) (R).

Sulforaphane also ameliorates airway and lung constrictions caused by methacholine in 60% of moderate asthmatics. However, in 20% of the asthmatics, sulforaphane worsens the constrictions (R).

In other human trials, broccoli sprouts did not improve asthma (R), COPD symptoms (R) or ozone-induced airway inflammation (R).

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have innate immune dysfunction in the lung, resulting in frequent bacterial infections. Sulforaphane restores bacteria recognition and phagocytosis in lung macrophages from COPD patients (R).

Sulforaphane enhanced bacterial clearance by lung macrophages and reduced inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months (R).

26) Sulforaphane Combats Autoimmune Inflammation

Sulforaphane decreases autoimmune inflammation (R). SFN can be beneficial against T-cell driven autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS)-like diseases in animals, but studies in humans are still lagging.

Sulforaphane significantly inhibited the development and severity of MS-like disease in mice, mitigating inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the spinal cord (R, R).

Sulforaphane caused improvement by silencing Th17/Th1 responses within the brain/neurons (R).

NRF2 deficient mice have exacerbated pathology in this model (R) .Sulforaphane activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway, which helps combat the disease (R).

27) Sulforaphane Can Attenuate Pain

Broccoli sprout extract attenuates pain in mice and rats in a dose-dependent manner, possibly by activating the opioid receptors (R).

In mice, sulforaphane attenuated pain, reduced pro-inflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines. Sulforaphane blocked COX2 and iNOS in injured nerve cells, the two key enzymes implicated in inflammation and neuropathic pain (R).

28) Sulforaphane Can Promote Bone Formation

In females, low levels of estrogen such as during menopause or after an ovary removal surgery can lead to reduced bone mass (osteoporosis). Sulforaphane promotes bone formation and increases bone volume (∼20%) in both normal mice and mice without ovaries. Sulforaphane diminishes bone resorption, thereby shifting the balance to a state favoring bone acquisition (R).

29) Sulforaphane Can Be Beneficial in Arthritis

A sulforaphane-rich diet improved osteoarthritis in mice. Sulforaphane inhibits key metalloproteinases implicated in osteoarthritis, independently of Nrf2, and blocks inflammation through NF-κB to protect against cartilage destruction (R).

Some of the SFN effects may be mediated by Nrf2, because enhanced oxidative stress and cartilage damage were observed in Nrf2-deficient mice with arthritis (R).

SFN reduced the severity of arthritis in mice by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines (R).

Several inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, switch the polarization of monocytes into classically activated pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 type). Sulforaphane blocks the inflammatory responses specific to M1 macrophages (Th1) and shifts macrophage production to M2 macrophages (R). M2 (Th2) decrease inflammation and encourage tissue repair.

30) Sulforaphane Can Prevent Muscle Damage

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Sulforaphane prevents muscle damage in rats after acute bouts of exhaustive exercise, by acting as an indirect antioxidant in the muscle (R).

31) Sulforaphane May be Beneficial in Muscular Dystrophy

Sulforaphane attenuates dystrophic muscle damage and muscle inflammation in mice by inducing Nrf2 (R, R).

In mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sulforaphane significantly increased muscle mass, muscle force (∼30%) and running distance. Sulforaphane also reduced muscle hypertrophy, heart muscle hypertrophy and inflammation (R).

32) Sulforaphane Can Protect the Kidneys

SFN protects against kidney damage in animals (R, R).

Chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin, can be toxic to kidneys. In animals, sulforaphane prevents inflammation and kidney damage caused by cisplatin (R).

33) Sulforaphane Can Support Hair Growth

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes androgenic baldness. Sulforaphane increases the production of enzymes that degrade DHT (R).

SNF significantly enhanced hair regeneration in mice, and reduced testosterone and DHT levels in the blood (R).

SFN increases the amount of testosterone degrading enzymes, such as 3α-HSD, in the liver, accelerates the degradation of blood DHT, and reverses the suppression of hair growth by DHT (R).

34) Sulforaphane Can Increase Alcohol Tolerance

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Many East Asians are highly intolerant to even modest alcohol consumption. These people accumulate acetaldehyde, the primary metabolite of alcohol, because of a genetic polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) that metabolizes acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate. Sulforaphane upregulates ALDH2 by dietary means, thereby reducing acetaldehyde toxicity (R).

In mice, SFN dramatically increased tissue ALDH2 and doubled the rate of elimination of acetaldehyde after the administration of alcohol (R).

SFN activates human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) and increases its activity towards acetaldehyde (R).

35) Sulforaphane May Be Beneficial in Pregnancy and May Increase Offspring Health

When glucoraphanin was administered to pregnant female rats, their offspring had lower blood pressure and less tissue inflammation in adulthood, regardless of their subsequent diet (R).

Administration of broccoli sprouts during pregnancy prevents growth restriction and neurodevelopmental delays and defects in rat pups (R, R).

36) Sulforaphane Protects the Eyes

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Oxidative stress due to excessive light exposure can exacerbate a variety of human retinal diseases by accelerating photoreceptor cell death (photoreceptors are cells that receive light and translate it into nerve impulses) (R). SFN protects human retinal cells from UVA light-induced damage (R).

SFN also protects against photoreceptor degeneration (R) and light-induced retinal damage in mice (R).

SFN dose-dependently induced thioredoxin (TXN) in mouse retina, a factor that protects cells against oxidative stress by maintaining vitamin A and vitamin C levels (R, R, R).

Sulforaphane treatment significantly attenuated ischemia (reduced oxygen and blood flow)-induced loss of retinal function in mice (R).

SFN protects human lens cells against oxidative stress and could potentially delay the onset of cataract (R). Also, SFN may help prevent complications after cataract surgery (R).

Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a condition in which a deficiency in Nrf2 was observed. SFN significantly ameliorates oxidative stress–induced cell death in FECD human cells (R).

37) Sulforaphane May be Beneficial Against Keloids

Sulforaphane inhibits cell growth and reduces collagen in keloid cells (R).

38) Sulforaphane May Ameliorate Bladder Dysfunction

In rats with bladder outlet obstruction, SFN treatment increased bladder capacity and bladder compliance (R).

39) Sulforaphane May Benefit Children with HGPS

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare childhood premature aging disorder linked to mutations in the LMNA gene. Protein clearance and autophagy are impaired in HGPS cells. SFN stimulates protein clearance by autophagy and reverses cellular phenotypic changes that are the hallmarks of HGPS (R).

Sulforaphane Negatives

1) Sulforaphane May Transiently Decrease Genome Stability

Sulforaphane increases the activation of many beneficial genes, including tumor suppressor genes. However, sulforaphane also activates long terminal repeats (LTRs), DNA sequences found within our genome that impair genome stability and cause mutations (R).

Consumption of broccoli sprouts by human volunteers caused a 10-fold increase in LTR activation in white blood cells. These effects are transient, and it remains to be determined whether they are biologically meaningful (R).

Other studies in human volunteers recorded no abnormal events related to broccoli sprout consumption (R).

Genotoxic effects were observed in unpublished studies with pigs fed with 600 g of raw broccoli for 12 days. These pigs had an increase in DNA strand breaks by 21% in the colon (R).

Also, after feeding raw or steamed broccoli to mice and rats, an increase in DNA adducts (cancer-causing chemicals binding to DNA) was observed (R).

However, all these effects in animals were observed for mature broccoli plant consumption. An additional benefit of broccoli sprouts is that they contain negligible quantities of indole glucosinolates, which predominate in the mature vegetable, and may give rise to degradation products (e.g., indole-3-carbinol) that can enhance tumorigenesis (R).

2) Excessive Consumption May or May Not Cause Liver Toxicity

There is a single case report of liver toxicity after drinking large amounts of broccoli juice for four weeks (800 ml/day). Transaminases, aspartate aminotransferase and c-glutamyltrans-peptidase were elevated, but decreased to normal within 15 days (R).

This was also caused by consuming the mature plant and may be caused by other substances found in the broccoli plant, unrelated to sulforaphane.

Genetics of Sulforaphane Metabolism

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GSTs are a large family of glutathione conjugating enzymes, which attaches glutathione to the substance that needs to be detoxified out of the body. Three of them, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 have been implicated in the metabolism of isothiocyanates, and sulforaphane in particular (R).

SNPs in the GSTM1 gene

Null mutations in GSTM1 result in the absence of a functional enzyme. The frequency of the GSTM1-null variant is estimated to be between 27 and 53% in human populations (R).

Individuals with GSTM1-null mutations may benefit more from SFN due to the decreased degradation of SFN, which therefore increased exposure (R). However, several other studies suggest otherwise. In these studies, GSTM1-positive individuals benefited more from either broccoli or cruciferous vegetable consumption compared to GSTM1-null individuals. GSTM1-null carriers excrete more SFN and SFN-metabolites, and excretion is faster (R).

SNPs in the GSTT1 gene

Null mutations in the GSTT1 gene result in the absence of a functional enzyme. The frequency of the GSTT1-null variation has been estimated to be between 10 and 21% for Caucasian populations and as high as 64% for Asian populations (R).

Broccoli sprouts are more effective in detoxification when GSTT1-positive carriers are exposed to airborne pollution compared to the null carriers (R).

SNPs in the GSTP1 gene

Maximizing Sulforaphane Bioavailability

Broccoli Sprouts are the Richest Source of Sulforaphane

The amount of sulforaphane (glucoraphanin) can vary widely in vegetables (R).

Broccoli is not the only cruciferous vegetable which has SFN, but it yields the highest amounts, with glucoraphanin content around 75% of total glucosinolates (R).

Furthermore, 3-day-old broccoli sprouts contain 10–100 times higher levels of glucoraphanin than does the mature broccoli (R, R).

Do not confuse broccoli sprouts with Brussel sprouts.

Myrosinase is Necessary for Sulforaphane Production

The majority of SFN is formed when glucoraphanin gets processed by myrosinase, upon plant tissue damage (e.g. chopping, chewing). When plant myrosinase is inactive or absent, a small amount of SFN may still be formed by gut bacteria-derived myrosinase activity (R).

Gut bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides, have been reported to possess myrosinase-like activity (R).

Many available broccoli sprout supplements are myrosinase-inactive (R, R). SFN absorption was sevenfold lower for glucoraphanin supplements than equivalent glucoraphanin-containing fresh broccoli sprouts containing the active enzyme (R).

SFN absorption from a glucoraphanin powder devoid of myrosinase activity improved when consumed along with an active source of myrosinase (such as air-dried broccoli sprouts) (R).

Also, combining broccoli sprouts with the broccoli powder enhanced SFN absorption from broccoli powder (R).

Processing Inactivates Myrosinase

The bioavailability of sulforaphane from fresh broccoli is much higher than that from cooked broccoli (R). Higher amounts of sulforaphane were found in the blood and urine when broccoli was eaten raw (bioavailability of 37%) versus cooked (3.4%) (R).

Cooking and/or blanching (during freezing process) of cruciferous vegetables inactivates myrosinase and decreases sulforaphane bioavailability (R).

Boiling for more than 1 min, or steaming for more than 4–5 min inactivates myrosinase (R).

Myrosinase Enhancers

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Mustard seeds contain a more resilient form of myrosinase. The addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the production of sulforaphane (R).

Avoiding Nitrile Formation

Broccoli also contains significant amounts of epithiospecifier protein (ESP), an inhibitor of myrosinase. ESP produces inactive sulforaphane nitrile. Under certain conditions, as much as 75% nitrile can be created (R).

ESP is more heat sensitive than myrosinase. Steaming for 1 – 3 min provides less nitrile and more sulforaphane yield from a broccoli meal (R).

Sulforaphane Metabolism

Sulforaphane is rapidly absorbed, peaking in the blood as early as 1-3 h after ingestion (R, R).

Once SFN is distributed there is evidence that it can accumulate in tissues and produce anticancer blocking and suppressing effects (R).

In the blood, sulforaphane-glutathione accounts for more than 50% of total sulforaphane metabolites (R).

SFN and its metabolites are cleared from the body within 12-72 h of dosing, by urinary excretion (R, R, R).

Maintenance of SFN concentrations in the body can be achieved by consuming recommended servings of cruciferous vegetables once a day (R).

My Experience With Broccoli Sprouts

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I started consuming broccoli sprouts about 5 years ago, but stopped about 9 months ago after I didn’t notice any significant effects.

I used to cut the top or green part off and put them on a salad.

I decided to revisit broccoli sprouts as a result of me being afraid of cancer and an improved understanding of gut health.

In particular, indoles in cruciferous veggies are very important for gut health. Indoles shift the metabolism of trypotphan to serotonin, instead of kynurenine. (R)

I’ve also been afraid of getting/having a possible bacterial infection, which often produce products that block the Vitamin D Receptor and cause autoimmune disease. Broccoli sprouts are strong anti-microbials.

However, I realized there was a gap between my experience and the research. Whenever this happens I step back and ask why. In this case, I figured I just wasn’t getting enough.

So then I thought it will be too annoying to buy more broccoli sprouts and cut the top off. I then wondered what would happen if I just put the whole container in the blender – with the bottom.

I didn’t do that before because I wasn’t sure if the bottom part was edible.  Well, I still don’t know, but years of experimentation have made me somewhat fearless (perhaps a little too much for my own good).

My Result? The effects are day and night from consuming the green part to putting the whole thing in a blender.

It’s extremely powerful. The effects are similar to high dose R-lipoic acid (700mg), but it’s better. Both are HDAC inhibitors. The broccoli sprouts are also antimicrobial, which lipoic acid is not.

It’s a relaxant, an anti-depressant, a potent anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant. It felt like it would steamroll any negative gut pathogens in its way.

Overall, it’s very powerful and I now know I’m getting the full effects when I do this. I wouldn’t want any more of an effect, anyway.

It’s critical that you put the whole container in the blender. I usually get 4 oz containers.

On the downside, it temporarily decreases cognitive function, as does all powerful anti-oxidants. The brain needs some ROS to function properly. It’s honestly too strong to take daily. But if I had cancer I would take it daily.

When I take it at night it keeps me up, so I don’t recommend taking it at night.

Technical

sulforaphane_nrf2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3745957/

Sulforaphane is an indirect antioxidant:

  • SFN activates Nrf2 by binding Keap1 (R, R). SFN reacts with Keap1, thereby releasing Nrf2 from Keap1 binding (R).
  • SFN promotes ARE-driven gene expression (R, R).
  • SFN increases other Phase II enzymes: NQO1, GSTA1, and HO-1 (R, R, R, R).
  • SFN inhibits Phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2B2 and CYP3A4 (R, R).
  • SFN blocks SXR (R).

Sulforaphane inhibits inflammation:

Sulforaphane changes gene expression:

  • DNA hypermethylation can inhibit tumor suppressor genes and genes involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (cell death). DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) methylate DNA, and an overexpression of DNMTs is observed in a number of cancers, including leukemia, gastric, lung, and prostate cancer (R, R).
  • Sulforaphane inhibits DNMT1 and DNMT3A (R)
  • SFN is one of the most potent (histone deacetylase) HDAC inhibitors found to date (R).
  • SFN inhibits HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC4 (R, R).
  • SFN decreases miR-21 and TERT (R).

Sulforaphane induces cell death (apoptosis) in cancer:

Sulforaphane inhibits weight gain:

  • SFN‐induced browning of white adipocytes (fat cells) (R).
  • SFN decreases PPARγ and C/EBPα (R).
  • SFN increases AMPK (R).

Broccoli Seeds to Sprout

Organic broccoli sprouting seeds (AMZN)

Comments

  1. Stephen Halpern

    Sprouts are not the way to go for Sulforaphane,Johns Hopkins which prompted this for years ,has stopped promoting broccoli sprouts as the best source for Sulforaphane .They now promote Broccoli Seed as the best source,most supplement companies Zymogen ,Metagenics ,Design for Health , have only broccoli seed without the necessary myrosinase,the only supplement tested to produce high amounts of Sulforaphane is Vitalica Plus.It’s patented.I get mine from a company Talkingherbals.

  2. bob

    I eat a fair amount of cruciferous veggies…but most is frozen unfortunately. Except for raw cabbage which I like as a salad.

    Here is a standardized supplement:

    http://amzn.to/2mEH6OX

    400 mcg of already formed Sulforaphane….will work best for me.

  3. Stephen Halpern

    The only real potent.theraputic proven amount of active sulforaphane is a special non GMO ,broccoli seed with stabilized myrosinase.I have the test and research to proof it.Vitalics Plus,developed by the Caudel Seed company originally for John’s Hopkins research.

  4. Thank you so much for your informative article! I was wondering how many grams of broccoli sprouts per day is optimal (general health)? And what was your own daily intake?

  5. Joseph G

    Hey Joe,

    I read a lot of your stuff on brain fog and the gist is to lower inflammation, so how come you say that most powerful antioxidants lower cognitive function? What am I missing here ?

    Thanks so much.

  6. Michael DeLeon

    Ok exactly how much do I eat a day and where do I obtain the brussel sprouts at the grocery store or elsewhere do I grow them I’m very interested in this I’m taking a supplement but you said it doesn’t do any good please respond so that I can get on track

  7. Hi, interesting to come across such a personal story about such a specific subject so important to me! Here’s some additional “data” for the thoughtful readers out there engaged in trying to self-heal. I am 69 and at the end of a 2-year TOTAL investment in reversing multiple complex cancers — current and hopefully last front I am working on is the Feb 2015 diagnosis of “Ocular” cancer (which is really Brain Cancer you can see — I kid you not!). Since I have already tackled and reversed (first) Liver, GI, Esophogheal, CR, Breast/Lymph, and Skin cancers, it took me about 5 minutes to know what to do. I re-focused my entire energy and resources toward the plants and foods and (as few as possible) retail supplements that are known to reverse Brain Cancer. What I discovered is this: Broccoli Sprouts (juice of) has been repeatedly shown to out-perform Tamoxofen which is the world’s #1 All-Purpose Chemotherapeutic drug (practically everyone with Breast Cancer starts out on this). READ THIS AGAIN! So, I immediately became a Broccoli Sprout factory and learned how to consume 1-2 cups per day; it took about 5 months to eliminate the golf-ball size tumors in my armpits and for my duct pain and engorged breasts to disappear. What is amazing is that this also began to shrink the pressure (tumor) in my eye socket AND to assist in slowing down the stroke activity which was even more dangerous. Bottom line, I found that Broccoli Sprouts became my #1 stroke repair strategy, my #1 brain cancer phytochemotherapeutic agent (and this is saying a lot because I have used up to 25 per day. The added bonus is there is something in Broccoli Sprouts (sulforaphane? or another powerful pyytochemical?) which handles mood, focus, pain, and anxiety issues better than almost anything. And all for the same one cost and effort — learning how to grow the highest quality Broccoli Sprouts anytime, anywhere, for the lowest cost is perhaps the most cost-effective diet and medicine strategy you could invest in. I buy ONLY Certified Organic OP seed from Todd’s Seeds in 10# orders because this is also my #1 Prepper Food for stocking up.

  8. Lynn

    Dear Jo,
    I am an absolute fan of your blog as it has brought me very precious information to find adequate supplements to help my 7 year old son who has ASD.
    I was wondering why you wrote this:
    “On the downside, it temporarily decreases cognitive function, as does all powerful anti-oxidants.” If you have publications to back this, would you mind sharing them with me?
    On top of his autism ( and perhaps not by pure coincidence ) my son has clear signs of autoimmunity and is TH1 dominant. ( his TNF(a) are sky high). Longvida Curcuma does miracles for him cognitively as well as carnosine.
    Unfortunately both get him hyper but if we increase his daily intake progressively, this side effect seems manageable.
    He also takes astaxanthin, l-carnitine and high doses of fish oil.
    He was infected with EBV at 4 and his ASD signs got worse subsequently.
    We tried broccoli sprouts ( + potent sulfarophane powder from Australia- the total dose of Sulfarophane was very high -perhaps 4 to 5 times the dose I figured out later had been used in the Hopkins ASD broccoli study). This made him very agressive, anxious and did not help him cognitively.
    This is the reason why I stumbled upon this statement.
    Also Perhaps you could share your thoughts with me on all of this and help me refine my strategy to help him.

  9. Kira

    You mentioned that broccoli sprouts are powerfully antimicrobial. How likely is it that consuming them will negatively affect the commensals in the gut? In the big picture, could they do harm to the gut microbiome and lead to other problems in the long term? I would like to get the benefits you list, but I am cautious about eating an antibiotic (even a natural one).

  10. NTS

    Do broccoli sprouts help with gastric cancer? My brother’s girlfriend may have it, she was hospitalised not too long ago and they’re doing blood tests/MRIs/an x-ray to see if there’s a problem

  11. MachineGhost

    From: http://dimfaq.com/site/I3C-safety.htm

    > Anyone advocating the benefits of I3C over DIM is ignoring the
    > published scientific facts. A careful review of the research reveals
    > serious questions concerning the safety of I3C. For example, the
    > National Institute of Health (NIH) in its Chemoprevention Branch
    > Report on I3C safety issues says: “Subchronic, preclinical toxicology
    > studies in dogs have identified significant toxicities associated with
    > oral administration of I3C… The possible enhancing effects of I3C on
    > chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity should be investigated,
    > especially in light of the wide variety of enzymes induced… The fact
    > that the I3C condensation product ICZ has both antiestrogenic and
    > estrogenic activities also may have safety implications… Additional
    > genetic toxicity testing may be required.” (1)

    I’d like to see you do a post about I3C vs DIM.

  12. Joanna

    My family is very skeptical about taking anything in the form of “pills”, even if its derived from a plant for example…
    This seems like something I can recommend them to consume. Thanks.

  13. Adrian

    Heah Jo. I remember taking Alfafa sprouts and brocolli sprouts a few years back and they weren’t too kind to the stomach. Just wondered if you or and of the other readers have noticed a similiar response.

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